Essay plan- altruism

Submitted By TaylorShepherd
Words: 1389
Pages: 6

Are Humans ultimately selfish or altruistic? Critically analyse the role of self in altruistic behavior.

umans are born in need of nurture therefore it is the environmental, social and physical teachings from the nurturer that mold an individual’s psychological processes, this making them ultimately altruistic or selfish. Altruistic behaviors have been noted as acting unselfishly for another’s sake. Researchers (e.g., Batson et al., 1981; Cialdini & Kenrick, 1976) argue that altruism should be defined to acknowledge only when the helper has only the welfare of the other in mind. Helpers who also act to maintain a favorable self-image or to avoid aversive emotional reactions (i.e., for selfish rewards) are said not to qualify as altruists. Whilst nurturing effects the psychological state of an individual, life changing events and or experiences may assist in the formation of new schemas thus the nurturers influence may be disregarded as the individual’s own perception are formed. This essay aims to analyze current empirical data and research surrounding the concepts of the importance of nurturing in the formation of behaviors, the extent to which environmental, social and physical factors affect an individual and lastly how experiences change behaviors. Empirical data and literature has been found to have some flaws therefore further research may help individuals, therapist, psychologists and other health professional to gain a better insight on what it means to be either ultimately altruistic or selfish or if it is even possible to be just one, altruistic or selfish.

Paragraph one
Topic- Babies need for nurture meaning without the utmost physical needs of a child being met by a nurturer the child will no reach any form of selfish or altruistic behaviors as no behaviors will be learnt.
Argument- As humans our first few years comprise of being looked after, fed, loved and kept clean emotions, expressions, actions (motor and minor skills) and behaviors are learnt within this period therefore the nurturer is the teacher or altruism or selfishness.
Wright, J.M (2010) quotes Blatz definition on infants “during infancy and the early years, children’s peace of mind depends on behaviors of those who care for them. Because of their immaturity, children are totally dependent on agent or agents (usually parents) to make decisions for them”.
Li,W, et al(2013) Skill acquisition is enhanced when parents and other caregivers provide warm, responsive, and stimulating care involving frequent positive interactions
Nurturing emotional relationships are the most crucial primary foundation for both intellectual and social growth. Research shows time and again that babies who receive affection and nurturing from their parents have the best chance of developing into children, teens, and adults who are happy, healthy, and competent. When there are secure, empathetic, nurturing relationships, children learn to be intimate and empathetic, and eventually to communicate their feelings, reflect on their own wishes, and develop their own relationships ( Brazeton, B & Geenspan, S. (2014).

Paragraph two
Topic- environmental, social and physical teachings from the nurturer that mold an individual’s psychological processes, this making them ultimately altruistic or selfish
Argument- As we develop and progress through our lifespan we mirror what we have been taught, what has been around us and what is physically in front of us, it is a combination of all that produce who we are whether it be altruistic or
Research suggests that altruism in boys related significantly to altruistic values of fathers, to affection, and to use of victim-centered discipline by mothers. Results suggest that altruistic children have at least one parent (usually the same sex) who communicates altruistic values (Hofman, 1975) In relation to young children caregiver's