I am reporting on the chemical Ethanol. I have noticed over the past few years that our government is pushing for this staple to become the “go to” for alternative fuel. Unfortunately, history is repeating itself again, our government cannot come up with anything useful that’s not petroleum based or involves combining with other chemicals. Our country has been using Ethanol since before the civil war to power their daily living. It was also used to power some of the first vehicles. Ethanol is a natural occurring chemical, it has a basic molecular formula is C2H6O, and the molecular mass is 46.07g/mol. This is a colorless, nearly odorless, and sometimes burns with a smokeless blue flame not necessarily visible in natural lighting. This mildly toxic chemical whose toxicity is measured by the purity and amount absorbed. The use of ethanol can be dated back to over nine thousand years ago, dried residue was found on old pottery in China, but the discovery was not recorded until 1796 by Johann Tobias Lowitz when he obtained pure ethanol by mixing partially purified ethanol with an excess of anhydrous and then distilled the mixture over low heat. In 1807 Nicolas-Theodore de Saussure determined ethanol’s chemical formula. Ethanol has been around since nearly the beginning of time. During the Neolithic period, the caveman used to drink it as a recreational attribute. Today, you will find it used in the recreation of many of the earth’s residents. Whether made from the stills of moonshiners or from big business as ingredients for some of the finest drinks. Some other uses of this chemical are: fuel for engines, in thermometers, and as a solvent. Business Week’s definition of ethanol -“What exactly is ethanol; the fuel is derived from plants through a fairly straightforward process. In one common method Corn, is first ground into a fine powder, mixed with water, and then heated. An enzyme is then added to convert the mixture into sugars before yeast is added to ferment it. The resulting liquid, called "beer," is about 10% alcohol. A distillation process then separates the alcohol from the rest of the mixture before the remaining water is removed. The result is essentially pure alcohol. A small amount of gas is added to render the liquid undrinkable. Then the fuel can be used by itself or as a supplement to gasoline to power cars. Ethanol has three advantages, at least in theory: It's renewable, it can be domestically produced, and it burns cleaner than gas. The world's largest producers of ethanol are the U.S., which makes it primarily from corn, and Brazil, which mashes the stuff out of sugarcane” Bloomberg writes, of ethanol derived from plants including corn, wheat, barley and sugarcane. They also speak of the large government subsidies as an alternative fuel. “Ethanol for use as an industrial feedstock or solvent (sometimes referred to as synthetic ethanol) is made from petrochemical feed stocks, primarily by the acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene, represented by the chemical equation C2H4 + H2O → CH3CH2OH The catalyst is most commonly phosphoric acid, adsorbed onto a porous support such as silica gel or diatomaceous earth. This catalyst was first used for large-scale ethanol production by the Shell Oil Company in 1947. The reaction is carried out with an excess of high pressure steam at 300 °C. In the U.S., this process was used on an industrial scale by Union Carbide Corporation and others; but now only LyondellBasell uses it commercially. “In an older process, first practiced on the industrial scale in 1930 by Union Carbide, but now almost entirely obsolete, ethylene was hydrated indirectly by reacting it with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce ethyl sulfate, which was hydrolysed to yield ethanol and regenerate the sulfuric acid” (Wiki) Some of the dangers…
The Ethanol Production Process
Flow Meters and Controls
Direct Reading Flowmeters For Liquids and Gases
Ethanol- How it s made....
There are three main uses for ethanol (industrial, beverage and fuel) and production varies for each industry. Ethanol production in the US is primarily used for fuel consumption using a dry mill process. It takes 1 bushel (56 lbs.) of corn to produce an estimated 2.5 to 3.0 gallon of ethanol. Now more then ever US consumption of ethanol will increase…
crystallization, if necessary.
• Collect the product by vacuum filtration.
• Wash with several portions of ice-cold water, until the acetic acid odor is practically gone.
• Recrystallize the product from 50% aqueous ethanol
• Collect the product, dry and weigh.
• Record the melting point:
o determine which stereoisomer mixture was formed: erythro- or threo-
(examine the melting points given above for comparison)
bacteria characterized by the ability to convert ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. There are several species within this genus, and there are other bacteria capable of forming acetic acid under various conditions; but all of the Acetobacter are known by this characteristic ability.
Acetobacter are of particular importance commercially, because:
* they are used in the production of vinegar (intentionally converting the ethanol in the wine to acetic acid)
* they can destroy…
The Brazilian Ethanol Story
IB 403, Section 003
Biofuel is one of the newest and largest trends sweeping the world. Gaining interest in countries and economies, governments have announced strong commitments to biofuel programs in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify energy sources. Although these programs are new to many countries, Brazil has years of experience with sugarcane-based ethanol, creating a success…
The Impact of Ethanol on Japan
In modern history, the introduction of ethanol has been praised by many but is overlooked by the rest of the world. This means that the ethanol fuel source has had many profound effects. In fact, in recent decades, the demand for cleaner energy production and higher gas mileage has sparked interest in government projects supporting a major change in a positive direction. Previously, gas guzzling automobiles held back opportunity from the advancement of a safer, cleaner…
research and display how to open an ethanol plant in the United States of America. As a young up and coming entrepreneur I have taken a serious interest in alternative energy and the effects and depletion of fossil fuels. We are currently living in an era where we are some of the last consumers of fossil fuels. As many people already know fossil fuel is a non-renewable source, which means once it has been depleted it’s gone forever. Unlike fossil fuel--ethanol is a biofuel that can be used as an…
Cellulosic Ethanol from a Farmers Perspective
Many farmers are realizing that the demand for cellulosic ethanol is at the start of an upward trend. An increasing amount of farm cooperatives are basing their crops off the sales to these ethanol production plants. The increase in production of cellulosic ethanol is making feedstock such as switchgrass realistic. Switchgrass produces about two times more ethanol than corn stover would. If a farmer were to continue rotating corn and…
In the second place, deciding whether to drink is a personal decision that we each eventually have to make. Alcohol is a drug; it’s a Depressant which slows down thinking and actions. Pure alcohol, known as ethyl alcohol or ethanol, is colorless and has no taste. Alcoholic drinks get there color and flavor from the ingredients used to make them.
Lastly, drugs and alcohol can do bad things to your body. The alcohol that goes through your body is processed by the liver; the…