Ethical Reasoning I have been a waiter in a prestigious Main Line country club for about three years. Through my time there I have gained a lot of knowledge in the restaurant and hospitality industry. I have seen many mistakes during my time spent there. Many dinners have gone out wrong, drink orders confused, reservations recorded incorrectly, and most importantly checks either over or under charged. I have seen one to many checks issued wrong in a restaurant and have become overwhelmingly cautious when I go out to dinner to assure the accuracy of my dinner bill. I understand that it is human nature and that everyone makes mistakes. The servers are not over or under charging purposefully but just through an error of moving to fast or taking on to many tables that evening. In my experience I cannot recall more than one or two times where somebody had stopped me after I issued a check and said that I need to add more to their bill because I had forgotten to add a glass of wine or dessert. On the contrary, I have been pulled aside and scolded for accidently over charging someone several times in the past. Rarely do you find yourself stopping your server and asking them to charge your more for your meal. Recently I encountered a similar instance when I joined three friends for dinner and drinks last week. We all had a great meal with appetizers, drinks, entrées and desserts. It was my turn to pick up the bill for dinner and like I always do I made sure to read over the bill. Our server, who looked to be a new hire, forgot to charge us for a round of drinks and one of the appetizers we ordered. I calculated that the missing charges were approximately thirty dollars. I was torn, I know what it is like to be on the other side as server and to just make an honest mistake, but I was also a struggling college student who could really use that extra money. I was confronted into making a split second ethical decision and was honestly torn on how to confront the situation. There are several different ways to approach this ethical situation. There is no clear choice of what is right or wrong on any situation and no decision style or answer is automatically correct. The first decision style would be an experientialist view, someone who makes their decisions off of their first “gut” instinct. They would address the restaurant situation by automatically thinking that it was clearly an unethical issue to pay the incorrect amount. A systemicist, someone who is a Utilitarian and always looking for the greatest good for the most people, would without a doubt think it is unethical because it is taking revenue away from the restaurant that directly affects all of the employees and the prosperity of the restaurant. Another view would be from a transcendentalist, an individual who is very clear about right and wrong in their decision making process, who would believe that the situation described above would be wrong and unethical without any second guessing on paying the correct amount of the bill. A more means focused decision style, in contrast with the previous ends-focused decision style, would be the conventionalist. A conventionalist would always look at how others act, a conformist. They would approach the situation by not asking their server to add the missing charges because the majority of the people would just be happy that they saved some money on their evening out. An individualist, someone who makes their decisions on the theory of whatever benefits “me” the most is the best decision, would not try to right the fact with their server, but just consider it their lucky day. The final ethical viewpoint would be a legitimist, someone who considers the law and rules to be considered ethical. They would ask their server to add the missing charges because they would not
Ethical reasoning can mean many in perspective ways. According to the website it states “Ethical reasoning pertains to the rights and wrongs of human conduct. Each person has standards that are defined by their personal values which come into play when the person faces certain dilemmas or decisions. Commonly, ethical differences occur because of individual interpretation of a subject or event, or may be political or religious in nature.” In my own perspective Ethical reasoning, is that we should…
• WHAT IS ETHICAL DELEMA?
-situations in which there are significant value conflicts among different interests
-real alternatives that are equally justifiable
-Significant consequences to sakeholders.
• WHAT ISSUES CCAN LEAD TO ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN BUSINESS?
-conflict of interest
• WHAT ARE THE STEPS ONE SHOULD TAKE TO RESOLVE AN ETHICAL DILEMMA?
-recognize an ethical dilemma exits
thinking and ethics is sometimes strong, and sometimes weak. The principles and rules of critical thinking are certainly applicable to ethical reasoning. There will always be a need for ethical decision making in order to be fair to everyone and to not be bias towards anyone for their religion, sex, race, etc.
Critical thinking can certainly be used for ethical reasoning. Ethics is defined as the reasoned study of what is morally right and wrong or good and bad. Critical thinking is the active and systematic…
Assessment 1: Critical Writing (15%)
Granitz, N. and D. Loewy (2007), Applying Ethical Theories: Interpreting and Responding to Student Plagiarism, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 72, pp 293-306.
Plagiarism in today's “copy and paste generation” is an unremitting, complex issue that is not yet fully understood.
The paper responds to this proposition with a thesis that understanding the ethical reasoning provided by students in defending plagiarism is crucial in preventing it in student…
and standards applicable to ethical reasoning and why? Would there be a need for ethical decision making and why? I will provide examples from the scenarios provided this week to support my findings.
The relationship between critical thinking and ethics is the process by which people decide for themselves the difference between right and wrong. Critical thinking analyzes and determines fact versus fiction by diagnosing the unknown, which identifies a person’s ethical standards. Integrating critical…
Women and men, morality and ethics - sexual differences in moral reasoning
Business Horizons, July-August, 1995 by Leslie M. Dawson
Women and men, morality and ethics - sexual differences in moral reasoning
Leslie M. Dawson
One of today's most important trends is the increased participation of women in the work force, particularly of women holding management positions in business. This trend has generated research interest in numerous issues concerning the impact of women on business practices…
Theory: moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor. Kohlberg followed the development of moral judgment far beyond the ages studied earlier by Piaget
When people consider moral dilemmas, it is their reasoning that is important, not their final decision, according to Lawrence Kohlberg. He theorized that people progress through three levels as they develop abilities…
using Kohlberg’s moral development model and by examining major ethical systems, namely deontology and utilitarianism, a clear understanding of the factors influencing this type of decision-making can be gained. Specifically, utilitarianism, Kant’s categorical imperative and the doctrine of double effect address the decision from differing viewpoints, providing the decision maker with compelling evidence to support both angles of the ethical and moral dilemma presented in the decision at hand. A decision…
Lawrence Kohlberg was an avid follower of Piaget’s work. He modified and elaborated Piaget’s theories to come to his own conclusion of identifying the three major levels of moral reasoning. Each level represents a fundamental shift in the social moral perspective of the individual. The Pre-conventional level, Conventional level and the Post-conventional level are the three levels that make up Kohlberg’s theory of moral development and education. Kohlberg created this method by interviewing 72 boys…
The Reality of the Aesthetical, Ethical, and Religious Lifestyle
Søren Kierkegaard indirectly authors three different essays detailing the aspects of the aesthetic, ethical, and religious lifestyles of humans using multiple pseudonyms. The purpose of using false names was primarily for the reason to separate his life from the lives he was writing about; however, it is quite clear that he is using his own life experiences to depict the advantages and shortcomings of each lifestyle. In the…