• Discuss ethical considerations in qualitative research. • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis. • Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour. • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis. • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis. • Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis (for example, cultural variation, stigmatization).
2. Ethics is an area of study which seeks to address questions about morality; that is, about concepts such as good and bad, right and wrong, justice, and virtue. …show more content…
Great debate has raged as to whether or not we have a moral right to kill animals for our own gain, as there is a view that animals are beings with beliefs and desires, and as such are the "subjects of a life" with moral value and therefore moral rights. Questions have also been raised as to the legitimacy of the legal regulation of vivisection. Even in cases in which animal rights organisations have uncovered examples of un-scientific animal cruelty, the fines levied against the perpetrators were of almost inconsequential amounts.
The general ethical stance on animal testing is that it is permissible as long as the scientific benefits outweigh the costs in animal life. Scientists and governments state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and that animal tests should only be performed where necessary. In most countries, vivisection is guided by a set of principles known as the “three R’s”, which state:
1. Replacement. Non-animal methods should be used over animal methods whenever it is possible to achieve the same scientific aim.
2. Reduction. Methods should be used that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals, or to obtain more information