1. The first European country that arrived on the African Continent in the 15th century was the Portuguese. The Portuguese explored and claimed more of the West African coast and islands, with trade being established with Ghana, Gabon, Mali, and Benin in the 1470’s. They started to establish treaties trading weapons for slaves and this lead to warfare, starvation and in some regions depopulation. Bases were established on small islands off the West Coast of Africa, most importantly Sao Thome and Cape Verde being used to collect slaves traded from the mainland. Slavery had a huge impact on Africa causing King Alfonso I, who was the King at the time, to lose half of his kingdom. By the late 15th century Portugal had extended its reach along the east coast of Africa trying to establish a dominance in trade, they began slave trading in Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Mozambique in result of some East African kingdoms asking the Portuguese for help.
7. The Berlin Conference was a meeting set up by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the major western powers to negotiate and come to the conclusion of who will control Africa. Africa was divided into fifty irregular countries in which fourteen of them were represented by a number of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. The countries represented at the time were Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Denmark, Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Sweden-Norway, Turkey and the United States of America. But France, Great Britain, Germany and Portugal were the major players in the conference and were controlling most of colonial Africa. The initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River mouths and basins would be open for trade. At the time of the conference, only coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference the European colonial powers tried really hard to gain control over the heart of the continent. The Berlin Conference managed to come up with a set of