Evolution and Study Guide Chapters Essay

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Biology Spring 2014 Final Exam Study Guide
Chapters 9, 12-17, Ecology, Biodiversity, Anatomy 1+2
The final exam will have 60 multiple choice and 12 written questions. It is worth 20% of your semester grade.
Chapter 9: Genetics
1. Be able to define phenotype and genotype and give examples
2. Define homozygous and heterozygous
3. Define incomplete dominance and codominance
4. Give examples of complete dominance, incomplete dominance and codominance
5. Perform a simple genetics cross using punnet squares, determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring

Chapter 12: Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics
1. Define pedigree. What symbol represents a female? Male? Determine relationships between people using a pedigree (father and son, grandmother and grandson, etc…)
2. Determine an individual’s genotype and phenotype using a pedigree
3. Be able to create a pedigree for colorblindness
4. Define nondisjunction
5. How many pairs of sex chromosomes and autosomes do humans possess?
6. How is Down syndrome caused? Red-green colorblindness?

Chapter 14: History of Life
1. Describe endosymbiosis. Explain how endosymbiosis created eukaryotic cells, with respect to the origins of the two organelles found in those cells. (mitochondria and chloroplasts)
2. Define the following: archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, coacervates, and ribozymes
3. What is the half-life of carbon-14?
4. What is radiometric dating? Be able to determine the age of an object using carbon-14 dating

Chapter 15: Theory of Evolution
1. Define convergent and divergent evolution
2. Define analogous, homologous, vestigial, and embryonic structures
3. Describe the theory of natural selection
4. Define fitness

Chapter 16-17: Population Genetics and Classification
1. Define binomial nomenclature and be able to correctly write out an organisms name, using binomial nomenclature
2. Describe directional, disruptive and stabilizing selection. Give examples of each
3. Be able to determine if a graph is showing directional, disruptive or stabilizing selection
4. Define population
5. List the 8 levels of classification in order
6. List the 5 assumptions of the Hardy Weinberg Genetic Equilibrium
7. Define gene pool
Ecology Unit
1. Define consumer and producer. Give examples
2. What is the original source for almost all the energy in most ecosystems?
3. What is a food web? Food chain?
4. Define autotroph, heterotroph, decomposers, omnivore, carnivore, and herbivore. Give examples.
5. What are abiotic factors? Give examples
6. What are biotic factors? Give examples
7. Identify the following on a…