Evolution: Human and African Homo Erectus Essay

Submitted By sofija2
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EVOLUTION
THE HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY TREE:
Homo Sapiens:
• Where Lived: Evolved in Africa, now worldwide
• When Lived: About 200,000 years ago to present
• About: during a time of dramatic climate change 200,000 years ago, homo sapiens evolved in Africa. It is known that homo sapiens gathered together to hunt for food and survive. Scientists use the term “anatomically modern homo sapiens” to refer to people of our own species who lived during the prehistoric times.
Homo Habilis:
• Nickname: Handy man
• Where lived: eastern and southern africa
• When lived: 2.4 million to 1.4 million years ago
• About: the homo habilis is one of the earliest members of the genus homo. It has a slightly larger brain, small face and teeth, its features are ape like, including long arms. Their name was given to them in 1964, due to this species was thought to represent the first stone-tool maker.
Homo Erectus:
• Where lived: Northern, Eastern and Southern Africa, Western Asia (Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia) East Asia (China and Indonesia).
• When lived: they lived between 1.89 million and 143,000 years ago.
• About: Homo Erectus is considered a highly variable species, spread over 2 continents and possibly the longest lived early human species about 9 times as long as our own species homo sapiens.
Early discoveries from Java and China comprise the classic examples of this species. African Homo erectus fossils are the oldest known human to have possessed modern human- like body proportions.
Homo Neanderthalensis:
• Nickname: Neanderthalensis
• Where lived: Europe and southwestern to centre Asia
• When lived: About 200,000 to 28,000 years ago
• About: They are our closest extinct human relatives. Some of their features are, large middle part of their face, angled cheek bones, and a huge nose, but their bodies were shorter and stockier than ours. They made and used sophisticated tools, controlled fire, lived in shelters, made and wore clothing, were skilled hunters of large animals, ate plants foods and made symbolic objects. They deliberately buried their dead and occasionally marked their graves with offerings such as; flowers. NO other earlier species had ever practised this symbolic behaviour.
Australopithecus Afarensis:
• Nickname: Lucy’s species
• Where lived: Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya)
• When lived: Between 3.85 and 2.95 million years ago
• About: They are one of the longest-lived and best known early human species, Lucy’s species have uncovered remains from more than 300 individuals. The lucy’s species have survived for more than 900,000 years, which is over 4 times as long as our own species have been around. They have both ape and human like traits. Their children grew rapidly after birth and reached adult hood earlier than modern humans. Their features were ape like, such as; a flat nose, strongly projecting lower jaw and a small brain. Their arms were amazingly strong and long with curvy fingers, and they also had very small canine teeth. These species adaptations such as living on trees and on ground helped them survive for almost 1 million years as climate and environment changed.
Australopithecus Africanus:
• Where lived: southern Africa
• When lived: about 3.3 to 2.1 million years ago
• About: these species have a human-like and ape-like features, larger skull housing a larger brain and smaller teeth. Featues such as; long arms and strongly sloping face that juts out from underneath the brain with a pronounced jaw. Loves climbing.
Evidence for evolution:
1. Palaeontology: palaeontology is the study of fossils, it is when simple living things are found in the old rocks and complex living things are found in young rocks. This indicates development over time or more known as evolution.
2. Geographical distribution: geographical distribution is when the earth was only on piece of land called pangae then divided into 2 which are GONDWANA AND LAURISIA. Similarities between living things of…