One of the historical moment of a company is definitely the time of its IPO. By the end of 1980, Apple successfully executed an IPO and was generating over $200 million in annual sales. Right after the IPO, Apple announced the launch of Apple III. It was a failure due to its technical bugs. At the meantime, two important projects were in the process at Apple: Lisa and the Macintosh. Lisa, which is originally designed as a high-end business machine and the Macintosh as a low-end one. Jobs pushed his team to rush out the projects in a short period of time which leaded to some arguments internally. Some Apple’s engineers believed that this mission is beyond reality. In 1082, formally executive vice president of marketing at Pepsi joined Apple as CEO. Because Lisa was nowhere near the finishing line, Jobs pushed Mac project. Macintosh was a failure because it lacked some important features including hard drives. Facing the external competitors such as IBM, Dell, it posted its first loss on 1985(Hill, p2). Jobs’ responsibilities and position were stripped by Sculley. In later 1985, Jobs resigned and started his own computer company named NeXT.
Under the management of Sculley, Apple made some strategic changes to fit in the market. Apple’s position in desk top publishing was strengthened. “The period between 1986 and 1991 were in many ways the golden years for Apple” (Hill, p.2). By the early 1990s, Apple faced intense external competitions from Microsoft and IBM. Sculley’s plan