Essay on Exam 1 In Class Review

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HLTH 236: Exam 1 Review
Grades posted after TR classes take their exams
48 Questions, T/F, fill in blank, one matching = 100 pts total

Author’s name, read intro & discussion/results sections
Don’t worry about stats
Know major findings – implications to health of varying races from articles

Module 1:
Socioeconomic Disparities in Health by Paula Braveman
Patterns in the US
Lower income & lower education = Lower Social Economic Status
Know which race groups have lowest/highest, healthiest, wealthiest, indicators were measured? 11 Interaction of Race & Gender by J. Carter
Written to assess over time trends in the interactive effects of gender & race on attitudes toward the changing roles of women in the US
Are people more/less accepting of woman employment?
What is health?
Race vs. ethnicity (pay attention, know how to apply)
Race: physical characteristics
Ethnicity: common cultural traits (3: religion, language, beliefs)
What are they?
Nationality: citizenship vs. permanent residency vs. process of naturalization
What’s the difference b/w 3?
Health disparities vs. health care disparities
Inequality vs. inequity in health
Inequality: diff in health experience & health status
Inequity: unfair or unjust
Determinants of Health (4)
Socio-environmental factors
Physical environmental factors
Individual/personal factors
Access to health services
Introduction to Motion Charts
Mortality & Morbidity
Crude Mortality Rate: total # of deaths at a time
Cause-Specific: pertaining to a particular disease
Age-Specific: any specific age group
Infant Mortality: deaths under age 1
Neonatal & post neonatal mortality
Life Expectancy: average years a person can expect to live
Socioeconomic Status: income, poverty, wealth, education, occupation, residency
Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL):
Module 2
Under the Shadow of Tuskegee by Vanessa Gamble
Understand Implications*** : lost trust in the government & health care system
Who: 400 black men
Where: Macon County, Alabama
When: Ended in 1972 & lasted 40 years
What: Study effects of Syphilis over time
Why: Participants were told they had bad blood & were going to be treated for it when really they were given Syphilis & studied over time (even after death
Nurse– why chosen? Nurse Rivers, black, known in community & trusted; did not know that they were giving Syphilis
Which president apologized? Clinton
Classification of Races in Europe & North America by Banton
People were first interested in classifying plants: Blumenback: five-fold classification

Influence of amendments on health disparities
Key historical events that contributed to health disparities
WEB Dubois wrote in 1899: what did it do to deliver towards health & how it’s viewed
Booker T Washington: est. link b/w economic progress of Blacks & premature death from disease
Margaret Heckler do? Secretary of state of Healthy Human Services. What did she do?
Directive 15: 1977 Race & Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics
Governmental Organizations that address minority health issues
Why is it important to study minority health?

Lecture: US Pub Health
What incentives were offered? Free exams, rides, hot meals, treatment for other illnesses, $50 for barrier styphon
Who broke the silence? Jean Heller in 1972
What resulted in the US b/c of this study today?
Module 3
Understanding Racial-ethnic disparities in health by Williams Diminishing returns
Differences b/w race & ethnicities
Racial residential segregation by Williams
Racial disparities: extremely high for African Americans
Population Profiling & public health risk by Ellison
South African national blood service
Start for grouping to prevent HIV to be given in blood system; helped to reduce it by 4 groupings **test
Lecture: Concepts in Race/Ethnicity
Physiognomy: a person’s facial features or expression, especially when regarded as indicative of character or ethnic origin
Is this always accurate?
What’s the diff b/w race &