Exam 1 Notes Essay

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Developmental/Contextualism
Bio-Ecological Perspectives

What is a Theory – Why Are Theories Important?

Life-Span Developmental Theory

How to understand the Trajectory of Individual Development Over Time

Traditional debate revolves around contributions of nature vs nurture – “essentially meaningless and functionally useless” mutual influence

Developmental/contextual Perspective on Life-span Development
Bronfenbrenner
Lerner

Assumptions of D/C Perspective

1. Potential for growth exists at all stages of life
2. Continuity and change - Epigenetic Principle (predetermined vs probabilistic)
3. Importance of Context
4. Context is Grounded in Time

BASIC MODEL OVERVIEW – TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THE FACTORS THAT SHAPE THE TRAJECTORY OF DEVELOP OVER THE ENTIRE LIFE COURSE

3 Basic Categories of Shapers:

Individual Contributions
Environmental Contributions
Time
historical time family history chronological age family life events

Individual Contributions

Genetics and the Trajectory of Development
“Constructions of Reality” what is “meta-cognition”

2 Goals for Today’s Lecture:

Understanding of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems
Understanding of How Context is Bounded in Time

Environmental Contributions to the Trajectory of Development Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems

Macro-system Influences
Individualism versus Collectivism

Hierarchy versus Egalitarianism

Exo-system Influences

Micro-system Influences

Meso-System Influences

Time/Chronosystem

the historical Events that occur over time and the events that we experience personally over time both have an impact on the trajectory of development

History and Cohorts

What is a Cohort?

What Events Influence Cohorts?

Normative History-Graded Events

Normative Socio-Cultural Graded Events

What Personal History Events Impact on The Course of Development?

Normative Events

Non-normative Events
THE FAMILY As a Conext

Everyone Knows What a Family Is!

Defining Features of a Family

A Shared Sense of History
Some Degree of Emotional Bonding
Strategies for Meeting the Needs of Family Members

What are examples of these needs?

2 Central Dimensions Defining a Family

Family Composition –eg., single-Parent Headed; NUCLEAR; DIVORCED; BLENDED
Family Dynamics – how family members interact with one another First Focusing on Composition

what’s Unique about today’s families?

more diverse than ever in terms of composition

what accounts for this diversity?

divorce and remarriage rates out of wedlock birth rates cohabitation rates cultural acknowledgement of gay/lesbian relationships

SHIFTING THE FOCUS TO PATTERNS OF INTERCTION - FAMILY SYSTEMS THEORY

WHY THE SYSTEM’S METAPHOR?

STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF FAMILIES
WHOLENESS
ORGANIZATIONAL COMPLEXITY
INTERDEPENDENCE
STRATEGIES, RULES, CUSTOMS
TASKS

2 TYPES OF FAMILY SYSTEM TASKS
FIRST-ORDER TASKS
SECOND-ORDER TASKS

FIRST-ORDER TASKS
IDENTITY TASKS
BOUNDARY TASKS
MAINTENANCE TASKS
MANAGING THE EMOTIONAL CLIMATE

THE CONSTELLATION OF IDENTITY TASKS

FAMILY THEMES
RESOURCES AND THEMES
TIME
ENERGY
MONEY

CRITICAL PERSONAL IMAGES
COMMENT OF FAMILY MYTHS

BIO-SOCIAL TASKS
GENDER
SEXUALITY

BOUNDARY TASKS –REGULATING CONNECTIONS

EXTERNAL BOUNDARIES
OPEN VERSUS CLOSED

INTERNAL BOUNDARIES
ENMESHED
DISENGAGED
RELATIVELY BALANCED

MAINTENANCE TASKS

HOUSEKEEPING
FLEXIBILITY
UNDER-ORGANIZED
OVER-ORGANIZED

FINANCES
THE SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MONEY!

PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT IS COMMUNICATED THROUGH THE STRATEGIES THAT ARE ADOPTED FOR THE EXECUTION OF THESE TASKS

MANAGING THE EMOTIONAL CLIMATE

NURTURANCE
ALL BEHAVIOR IS COMMUNICATION
MESSAGES AND META-MESSAGES
FRAMING
CONNECTION
CONTROL

CONFLICT
CONTAINED VERSUS UNCONTAINED
TRIANGULATION
CROSS-GENERATIONAL COALITIONS

SECOND-ORDER TASKS – MANAGING…