Exam 1 Study Guide Essay

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Chem 960
Fall 2012

Exam 1 Review Sheet

Chapter 1: Chemistry: The Science of Change

know how many significant digits are present in a number be able to carry out a mathematical problem and report an answer with the correct number of significant digits

Chapter 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table

know Dalton’s Postulates and understand them understand Thomson’s model for an atom understand what Millikan did understand Rutherford’s model for an atom and how his experiments showed this understand the relative masses of the parts of an atom…..know where most of the mass of an atom is located know how to abbreviate the symbol for an atom ex: 126C superscript = mass number = protons + neutrons subscript = atomic number = # protons know how to calculate # of protons/neutrons/electrons given the symbol & numbers know what an isotope is (differ in # of neutrons, not electrons or protons) be able to calculate average atomic masses when given their % abundances; be able to do other similar problems regarding isotopes understand the layout of the periodic table be able to identify: Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Halogens, Noble Gases, Transition Metals, Lanthanides, Actinides, Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids be able to predict if a compound is ionic or covalent (metal/nonmetal is ionic, nonmetal/nonmetal is covalent) be able to predict the charges of ions: Group 1A atoms form +1 cations Group 2A atoms form +2 cations Al forms a +3 cation N forms a -3 anion Group 6A atoms form -2 anions Group 7A atoms form -1 anions You cannot predict the charges on transition metals - there are too many possibilities know what Amedeo Avogadro contributed to chemistry be able to convert between grams/moles/atoms; understand the mole and be proficient with Avogadro’s number

Chapter 3: Quantum Theory and the Electronic Structure of Atoms

know what Max Planck contributed to chemistry know what a quantum is know how Neils Bohr changed the concept of an atom’s structure understand what a line spectrum is be able to calculate the wavelength emitted with an electron transitions in an atom know Schroedinger’s contribution know the basic shapes of the s, p, d, and f orbitals understand what an orbital is be able to give electron configurations for atoms/ions in the correct filling order you should know the exceptions to the filling order……..know that, if you’re one electron away from being a half-filled d or f subshell, that one electron will be moved into a different subshell/shell in order to make it full and be more stable know Hund’s rule be able to give the 4 quantum numbers for any given electron when an electron is lost, it is always the one that is furthest away from the nucleus (the one with the highest principle quantum number, n, but not always the last electron to fill in the electron configuration; know this and be able to apply it you DO NOT need to know all of the energy/wavelength material from this chapter, despite the fact that it is a large portion of the chapter in the book

Chapter 4: Periodic Trends of the Elements effective nuclear charge (Zeff) is the attractive force that an electron experiences from the nucleus. Electrons in between the electron in question and the nucleus shield an outer electron from the full attractive force of the nucleus. You can get a crude approximation of this by using: Zeff = Z - S, where Z = the # of protons in the nucleus, S = the # of core electrons in between the nucleus and the electron in question. Zeff as you move the periodic table : electrons added in the same shell/subshell do not shield each other much at all, but the # of protons is continually increasing as you move across a row,