Essay on Exam 1 Study Guide

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Social Problems Exam 1 Study Guide
• A social problem is a social condition that a segment of society views as harmful to members of society and in need of remedy.
• An institution is an established and enduring pattern of social relationships. o The five traditional institutions are:
 Family
 Religion
 Politics
 Economics
 Education
• An ascribed status is one that society assigns to an individual on the basis of factors over which the individual has no control. o Examples: female, black, brother, etc
• An achieved status is assigned on the basis of some characteristic or behavior over which the individual has some control. o the status that is considered the most significant in a person’s social identity//Usually a person’s occupational status
• Beliefs- Definitions and explanations about what is assumed to be true
• Values- Social agreements about what is considered good and bad, right and wrong, desirable and undesirable
• Norms- Socially defined rules of behavior
• Sanctions- Consequences for conforming to or violating norms o Types and Examples of Sanctions
 Informal
• Positive: Being praised by one’s neighbors for organizing a neighborhood recycling program
• Negative: Being criticized by one’s neighbors for refusing to participate in the neighborhood recycling program
 Formal
• Being granted an award for organizing a neighborhood recycling program
• Being fined by the city for failing to dispose of trash properly
• SF Perspective- Society is composed of parts that work together to maintain a state of balance o Emphasizes the interconnectedness of society by focusing on how each part influences and is influenced by other parts
• Conflict Perspective (Karl Marx)- Views society as composed of groups and interests competing for power and resources//Explains various aspects of our social world by looking at which groups have power and benefit from a particular social arrangement
• SI Perspective (micro sociology)- A basic premise is that a condition must be defined or recognized as a social problem for it to be a social problem o Identity and sense of self is shaped by social interaction o Self-concept is developed by observing how other interact with us and label us o By observing how others view us, we see a reflection of ourselves call the “looking glass self.”
• Variable- A variable is any measurable event, characteristic, or property that varies or is subject to change//Researchers must operationally define the variables they study. o An independent variable specifies how a variable is to be measured
• Methods of Research: o Experiments: involve manipulating the independent variable to determine how it affects the dependent variable o Surveys: involve eliciting information from respondents through questions o Interviews: trained interviewers ask respondents questions and make written notes about or tape-record the answers o Secondary Data Research: data that have already been collected by other researchers or government agencies or that exist as historical documents

 Developed countries- have relatively high gross national income and have economies made up of many different industries
 Developing countries- have relatively low gross national income and their economies are much simpler
 Least developed countries- are the poorest countries of the world
 Life Expectancy- Average number of years individuals born in a given year can expect to live—women have a longer life expectancy than men
 Leading cause of death for men and women in the U.S.- heart disease
 The Sick Role: This role carries with it an expectation that the person who is ill o Will seek and receive competent medical care o Adhere to the prescribed regimen o Return as soon as possible to normal role obligations
 Perspectives in regard to health and healthcare o Structural-Functionalist Perspective
 Concerned with how illness, health, and health care affect and are