Exam 1 Study Guide Ch1 4 Essays

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Exam 1 Study Guide
Chapters 1-4
September 12, 2014

Chapter 1: The Science of Biology
1.1 Biology is the science of life
Definition of Biology
The study of biology is a point of convergence for the information and tools from all of the natural sciences
Biological systems are the most complex chemical systems on Earth, and their many functions are both determined and constrained by the principles of chemistry and physics
No new laws of nature can be gleamed from the study of biology—but that study does illuminate and illustrate the workings of those natural laws
Every level of biological organization is governed by the nature of energy transactions learned from the study of thermodynamics
Biological systems do not represent any new forms of matter, and yet they are the most complex organization of matter known
Biological problems often require many different approaches to arrive at solutions
7 Properties of Life
1) Cellular Organization – All organisms consist of one or more cells. Often too tiny to see, cells carry out the basic activities of living. Each cell is bounded by a membrane that separates it from its surroundings
2) Ordered Complexity – All living things are both complex and highly ordered. Your body is composed of many different kinds of cells, each containing many complex molecular structures. Many nonliving things may also be complex, but they do not exhibit this degree of ordered complexity
3) Sensitivity – All organisms respond to stimuli. Plants grow toward a source of light, and the pupils of your eyes dilate when you walk into a dark room
An organism’s ability to sense its environment
4) Growth, development and reproduction – All organisms are capable of growing and reproducing, and they all possess hereditary molecules that are passed to their offspring, ensuring that the offspring are the same species
Reproduction entails heredity (DNA)
5) Energy utilization (metabolism) – All organisms take in energy and use it to perform many kinds of work. Every muscle in your body is powered with energy you obtain from your diet
All organisms need energy to grow, develop and reproduce
Sources of energy: light, chemicals
All life metabolizes
6) Homeostasis – All organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions that are different from their environment, a process called homeostasis.
Ex) your body temperature remains stable despite changes in outside temperatures
Maintaining a single internal environment that is relatively constant
7) Evolutionary adaption – All organisms interact with other organisms and the nonliving environment in wayfs that influence their survival, and as a consequence, organisms evolve adaptations to their environment
The change from generation to generation
1.2 Scientists form generalizations from observations
Deductive Reasoning
Applies general principles to predict specific results
More than 2200 years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes used Euclidean geometry and deductive reasoning to accurately estimate the circumference of the Earth
Deductive reasoning is the reasoning of mathematics and philosophy and it is used to test the validity of general ideas in all branches of knowledge
A biologist uses deductive reasoning to infer the species of a specimen from its characteristics
Inductive Reasoning
The logic flows in the opposite direction as deductive reasoning, from specific to general
Inductive reasoning uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles
Inductive reasoning leads to generalizations that can be tested
Inductive reasoning first became important to science in the 1600s in Europe, when Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, and others began to use the results of particular experiments to infer general principles about how the world operates
How Science is Done
First, scientists make observations that raise a particular question. They develop a number of potential explanations (hypotheses) to answer the question. Next, they carry out