EXAM 2 Essay

Submitted By victoriafunes13
Words: 1917
Pages: 8

-found in executive branch
-president is in charge
-carries out implementation/ implements law w/I departments and agencies Implementation: way/process in which policy is executed -members in bureaucracy interpret law and make sure they are being faithful to intended purpose= take care clause
Economic behavior: provides fair methods of fair competition to prevent monopolies
Social behavior: controls quality of life/ makes sure things are safe -OSHA= agency that regulates work place safety
Spoils system: a system of government in which a presidential administration awards jobs to party loyalists -individuals who were loyal and supportive to political party would be rewarded for their loyalty with jobs BUT that meant that amateurs were hired= could be replaced in next election (no continuity), -agencies were less professional and less capable of furnishing much needed expertise on public policy -brought about civil service system: a system of government n which decisions about hiring, promotion, and firing are based on individuals’ work experience, skills, and expertise -in late 1900’s (1883), Congress enacted the Pendleton Act, which established the Civil Service Commission, which oversaw the hiring and firing of federal bureaucrats on the basis of new procedures, examinations, and qualifications -civil servant: one who is hired through the civil service system
BOSS TWEED: American politician that gave out political favors for support for his party -In NYC, Tweed made estimate for new bridge in city ($25, 000) -work slowly executed -Tweed asked for more money for project (added up t 36 mill total) -Project took 6-7 years to complete -Board of supervisors in NYC made an investigation because it was too much money and took too long -Boss Tweed was head of Board= found no issue -People/ opponents angered, bringing about Progressive Reform Era

PROGRESSIVE REFORM ERA: taking politics out of government/ administration= help no longer comes from administration
1-established new government structure= new government hierarchy that still stands today -department secretary -agency director -program managers -street level bureaucrats= post office, cops, teachers, garbage collectors
2-specialization: individuals are specialists in their field in specialized offices
3- Clear cut responsibilities= “sub- descriptions” so that people know exactly what they’re doing
4-standard operating procedures= system of rules which clearly guide official behavior
5- Hiring based on merit, not political party= based on qualifications/ sills to do jobs
BUREAUCRATIC SLACK: a situation in which bureaucrats do not work as hard as Congress or the president would like
BUREAUCRATIC DRIFT: a situation in which bureaucrats create policy that does not match the policy preferences of Congress or the President
BRIEFS: documents that contain the legal arguments of a dispute
ORAL ARGUMENTS: a lawyer’s spoken presentation to the court of the legal reasons that his or her side should prevail
CONFERENCE: the confidential gathering of justices in which they discuss their thoughts about the case and cast preliminary votes
JUDICUAL REVIEW: the power of the judiciary to interpret and overturn actions taken by the legislative and executive branches of government
DISSENTING OPINION: a document written by a justice on the MINORITY SIDE of a ruling that outlines his or her own reasoning on that case and identifies perceived flaws in the majority opinion
CONCURRING OPINION: a document written by a justice on the MAJORITY SIDE of a ruling that outlines additional considerations he or she thinks are important
DUE PROCESS: procedural safeguards that government officials are obligated to follow prior to restricting rights of life, liberty, and property