What Is The Ballwitzer And Symbolic Self-Completion?

Submitted By bonilla9
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Balcetis & Dunning (2010)- Results
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Letters are rewarded:
Saw letters: 50%
Saw numbers: 40%

Numbers are rewarded:
Saw Letters: 30%
Saw Numbers: 60% Hide
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Terror Management Theory
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People have the need to invest in a world view that provides them with meaning.

Individuals must feel like objects of significance in their culture (world view) Hide
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What is the Gollwitzer & Symbolic Self-Completion?
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*When you're failing in reality, you move it to the symbolic level and that's good enough Hide
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Buss & Schmitt (1993)
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Females keep a steady stream that usually doesn't go above 3 partners. Males desire up to 20 partners over the period of a lifetime.

"How likely are you to have intercourse with someone based on how long you've known them?" Hide
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Imagined someone failed a test (Class Data)
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Stranger:
Ability (11% Most likely), Effort (49%), Difficult (29%), Bad Luck (3%)

You:
Ability (2%), Effort (57%), Difficult Test (34%), Bad Luck (2%) Hide
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Tesser & Smith (1982)- Method
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Method: Participants arrive for a study on word identification in pairs of close friends. Task described either indicating important to verbal skills or as game. Participants give a list of clues, ranging in difficulty.
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What is motivated cognition?
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How our thoughts are biased by desired or preferred outcomes?

Desires Influence:
Objective evaluations of other people
The attributions we make for our own & others' behaviors
How we present ourselves to others
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What are the differences in mate preferences?
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Males: Prefer mates with signs of health and fertility. Skin quality. Waist to hip ration (.67-.80)

Females: Mates with ability to provide resources, quality genetic material, high social status, dependability, dominant behavior, shoulder hip ratio Hide
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Class Data - Which Infidelity is More Distressing?
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Women: Emotional (71%) Sexual (29%)
Men: Emotional (37%) Sexual (63%) Hide
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What are the differences in relationship characteristics?
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Females are 100% certain that their offspring is theirs
Males cannot know whether or not an offspring is theirs
Parental uncertainty differences should predict differences in male and female responses to infidelity Hide
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Regean, Straus & Fazio (1974)- Results
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Liked: Success (5.3 Ability)/Failure: 2.4- When the confederate is liked, it it because they are good at the game

Disliked: Success (2.8)/Failure (5.6) they were not good at the game. They lacked the ability to do well Hide
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Pietrzak et. al. (2002) - Type of Infidelity
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Anger at sexual infidelity: M > F
Amount of anger felt:
Men/Sexual (9.8) & Men/Emotional (7.0)
Female/Sexual (7.8) & Female/Emotional (10.3) Hide
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Mortality Salient Hypothesis
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If a culture serves a death defying function, and if you remind a person that they're going to die, that should make them even more invested in their culture Hide
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Bruner & Goodman (1947)- Results
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Cardboard discs were most closely judged for size.
Coins were much larger: .01 - 15%, .05- 25%, .10-30%, .25-40%
Children who came from poorer families rate the quarter as much larger than it actually is Hide
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What are the dynamics of SEM: Changing Closeness?
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*Can maintain self-evaluation by changing who you're close to
*If the behavior is low relevance, the closer you should be to another who does well
*If the behavior has high relevance, the more distant you should want to be to another who does well
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What are the dynamics of self-evaluation maintenance: changing relevance?
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*Can maintain self-esteem…