Exam 3 Study Guide Essay

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Biology Study Guide for Exam 3
1. Compare autotrophs vs heterotrophs
Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own food from the substances available in their surroundings using light (photosynthesis) or chemical energy (chemosynthesis). Heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own food and rely on other organisms -- both plants and animals -- for nutrition.
2. Define the terms cellular respirations, dehydrogenations, oxidations and reductions
Cellular Respiration: Cellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP.
Dehydrogenations: Dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from a molecule. It is the reverse process of hydrogenation.
Oxidations: A chemical reaction in which there is the loss of electrons.
Reductions: A chemical reaction in which there is a gain of electrons.
3. Know the formula for cellular respirations.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

4. Know the different biochemical pathways for cellular respiration (glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, krebs cycle, and Electron transport chain/chemiosmosis). Know the substrates for starting each reaction and the products

(2) The cellular degradation of the simple sugar, glucose, to yield ATP as an energy source.

5. Know the electron carriers of cellular respiration and when they are produced
NADH and FADH2, they are produced in the Krebs cycle.
6. Know aerobic respiration vs anaerobic respiration vs fermentation
Aerobic Respiration:
(1) A form of cellular respiration that requires oxygen in order to generate energy. (2) The process of generating energy by the full oxidation of nutrients through Krebs cycle where oxygen is the final electron acceptor.
Anaerobic Respiration:
Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration using electron acceptors other than oxygen. Although oxygen is not used as the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain; it is respiration without oxygen.
Fermentation is an anaerobic process in which energy can be released from glucose even though oxygen is not available. Fermentation occurs in yeast cells, and a form of fermentation takes place in bacteria and in the muscle cells of animals.

7. What is ATP? Know the two different ways that ATP is formed
Adenosine triphosphate is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. Atp is formed by Glycolysis and the Calvin Cycle.
8. Where does glycolysis takes place? Pyruvate Oxidation? Krebs Cycle and ETC/Chemiosmosis?

Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol of the cell and can proceed regardless of the presence of oxygen
Pyruvate oxidation occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
The Krebs cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria. This is part of the process of respiration which uses glucose to form energy and occurs in the inner mitochondrial space. The Krebs cycle leads to the production of ADH and NADH.
Chemiosmosis takes place in the chloroplasts. This is a process in which a solvent moves from a place of high concentration to low concentration. It takes place in the mitochondria membrane. takes place in the chloroplasts. This is a process in which a solvent moves from a place of high concentration to low concentration. It takes place in the mitochondria membrane.
9. What does oxaloacetate bind to start the Krebs cycle. What are the three segments of the Krebs cycle
Oxaloacetate binds to Acetyl-CoA to start the Krebs Cycle. The three segments of the Krebbs cycle are: Segment A: Acetyl-CoA plus oxaloacetate Segment B: Citrate rearrangement and decarbonization Segment C:Regeneration of oxaloacetate
10. Know the enzymes/electron carriers of