Essay about Exam Review

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Exam 4: Ch 24-25 Review
** = possible short answer question, practice writing out your answer!
Chapter 24 * Functions of the digestive system * 4 layers of the GI tract * How does the autonomic nervous system influence your digestive system? * Digestion starts in the mouth – mechanical and chemical * chemical * Saliva – composed of what? Controlled by autonomic nervous system how? * Lingual lipase * Mumps * Root canals * Mechanical * Mastication * Bolus * Pharynx * Esophagus * Deglutition = swallowing * Peristalsis – what is this and where will you see it? * GERD * Know the difference between digestion and absorption * Stomach * Functions * Components of gastric juice * Gastric gland cells – what does each secrete? * What is the function of each of these secretions? * Mucous * Pepsinogen * Gastric lipase * HCl * Intrinsic factor * gastrin * Chime * Gastric emptying * What protects the stomach from being digested itself from all the acidic secretions? * Which substances are absorbed in the stomach? * Pancreas * Components of pancreatic juice * Pancreatic enzymes – what does each digest? * Pancreatic amylase * Trypsin (secreted in inactive form: trypsinogen) * Chymotrypsin * Carboxypeptidase * Elastase * Pancreatic lipase * Ribonuclease/deoxyribonuclease * Pancreatitis & pancreatic cancer * Liver * Functions * Hepatocytes are major functional cells * Kupffer cells can phagocytose * Jaundice * Gallbladder * functions * what is bile? * Gallstones * Small intestine * Functions * Types of cells located in the mucosa & their functions * Absorptive cells * Goblet cells * Intestinal glands * Paneth cells * Enteroendocrine cells – S cells, CCK cells, K cells * MALT & Peyer’s patches * Special structural features – circular folds, villi, microvilli – what is the function of these? * Brush border &brush border enzymes (know function, don’t worry about memorizing specific enzymes) * Mechanical digestion * Segmentations – know the general action and what this accomplishes * Migrating motility complex – type of peristalsis; what does this movement accomplish? * Chemical digestion – how are carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids broken down? * Absorption * What are the monomers that can be absorbed? * What causes lactose intolerance? * How are substances absorbed? (diffusion or active transport) * Lipid absorption – what are micelles and chylomicrons? * Lacteals – what role do these play in absorption? * How are electrolytes, vitamins, water, and alcohol absorbed? * Large intestine * Functions * Haustra * Appendicitis * Polyps * Mechanical digestion * Haustral churning * Peristalsis * Mass peristalsis * Chemical digestion – bacteria, no enzymes * What molecules are absorbed here? * Defecation * What causes this * Diarrhea vs. constipation * Importance of dietary fiber * Phases of digestion *…