MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND
DISCUSS BRIDGETON INDUSTRIES ACF
AND THE CASE APPROACH
Identify/define the problems and issues
Analysis to support the problems and issues you have identified
Cost system refinement II:
Alternative actions/recommendations that come out of your analysis and what is your preferred action plan?
Reading: Horngren Chapter 7 (Ch 5 in 14th edition); and Ch
8 to p 276 and pp281-283 (Ch 17 14th edition)
Note: the FIFO method will not be examined in this course and nor will Hybrid (Operation) Costing , therefore you do not need to read the pages that relate to these topics.
Be able to identify when cost systems should be refined
Understand the principles of cost refinement, particularly in relation to Activity-based costing Understand the characteristics of cost objects
(output) suited to process costing in manufacturing, retail and service businesses
Demonstrate the application of process costing techniques to cost output requiring multiple processes Consider accounting cost flows and inventory cost flow assumptions for the manufacturer.
Cost System refinement II
Broad averaging under simple costing systems
Reasons for refining; are departmental rates the solutions?
Activity Based Costing – 2 stage procedure
Volume vs non-volume related activities
Process Costing –
Comparison with Job Costing
Features of Process Costing (& Cost Flows)
Equivalent Unit Calculation
Equivalent Unit Cost Calculation
The Cost of Production Report
BROAD AVERAGING UNDER SIMPLE COSTING SYSTEMS
However, the individual products or services use those resources in non-uniform ways
Broad averaging leads to product over-costing and product under-costing
Simple costing is less realistic
Lecture 4 – Process Costing
Weighted Average Example
REASONS FOR REFINING:
Question that we need to answer:
Do reported costs reflect the way costs are actually consumed?
There are a variety of methods to accomplish this goal of representing reality
These methods often involve trade-offs between simplicity and realism
Subsequent process – transferred-in costs
WIP ledger account
Refined costing systems reduce the use of broad averages.
Increase in product diversity
Increase in indirect costs
More competition in product markets
Need for more accurate costs for decision making, as simpler cost systems produce distorted product costs that may result in managers making poor decisions.
Simple costing broadly averages or spreads the cost of resources uniformly to cost objects
ABC Cost hierarchy
Activity Cost Drivers
Product diversity? Resource consumption ratio
Why use ABC? Symptoms
Activity-based management (ABM)
Guidelines for refining a costing system:
Direct cost tracing – identify as many DIRECT costs as possible.
These can be traced. This reduces the extent to which costs have to be allocated. (Remember - question is: should they?)
Indirect cost pools – expand the number of indirect cost pools until each is more homogeneous. All costs in an homogeneous cost pool have the same or similar cause-and-effect or benefits received relationship with a single cost driver (Remember: cost vs benefit)
Cost allocation bases – use the cost driver (the cause of the indirect costs) for each homogeneous cost pool (the effect) .
1. INACCURACY DUE TO PRESENCE OF : VOLUME (UNITLEVEL) AND NON-VOLUME RELATED