Animal testing or animal research is the use of non-human animals in scientific experimentation. It is estimated that 50 to 100 million vertebrate animals worldwide — from zebrafish to non-human primates — are used annually. Although much larger numbers of invertebrates are used and the use of flies and worms as model organisms is very important, experiments on invertebrates are largely unregulated and not included in statistics. Most animals are euthanized after being used in an experiment. Sources of laboratory animals vary between countries and species; while most animals are purpose-bred, others may be caught in the wild or supplied by dealers who obtain them from auctions and pounds. The research is conducted inside universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, farms, defense establishments, and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry. It includes pure research such as genetics, developmental biology, behavioural studies, as well as applied research such as biomedical research, xenotransplantation, drug testing and toxicology tests, including cosmetics testing. Animals are also used for education, breeding, and defense research. The topic is highly controversial. Supporters of the practice, such as the British Royal Society, argue that virtually every medical achievement in the 20th century relied on the use of animals in some way, with the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences arguing
Laboratory Use of Living Organisms
Numerous people, especially people who do not work in the research or medical field, would be against the use of living organisms in the laboratories. However, the main reason why it is necessary to use living organisms in laboratories is so that researchers could learn more about animals, and as a result help discover new ways to save more human lives. In the long run, helping people at the cost of animals seems to be worth it (Sztybel 2006). One of the major…
AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREERESPONSE QUESTION
Internationally, animal testing is used for everything from
drugs to cosmetics. Over 100 million animals are tested in US
labs every year. Some people believe that animal testing is
cruel. Others, however, believe that animal testing is
necessary in order to advance medically and test products.
Carefully read the following six sources, then synthesize…
Animal Testing: Necessary and Humane in Modern Practice
History of Animal Testing
Diseases Treated in Animals
Parvo, Leukemia, Rabies
Diseases Treated in Humans
Polio, Anthrax, Smallpox
Laws Governing Testing
Negative Aspects of Testing
Loopholes in Law
Alternatives to Animal Testing
Conclusion Animal Testing: Necessary and Humane in Modern Practice
The struggle against sickness and disease is not over, yet medical progress is being threatened by activists…
independent and the dependent variable and must be a complete sentence.
Characteristics of Life:
Cell Tissue Organs Organ Systems Organism
Uses asexual or sexual reproduction to create new organisms.
Grows and Develops:
Growth: Change in size. Ex.: Getting taller.
Develop: Changes that occur as an organism grows. Ex.: Puberty.
Stable Internal Environment:
Homeostasis: Constant internal condition. Ex.: Sweating when hot.
Change Over Time:
Evolution: Changes to…
described as “the theory that groups of organisms change with the passage of time, mainly as a result of natural selection, so that descendants differ morphologically and physiologically from their ancestors”1 Biological evolution is a powerful and important process. It is a process which, over time, slowly selects the organisms that are better adapted to their environments, and takes advantage of random mutations to continuously change life and make all living organisms in existence be the way they are…
adaptation presumes to get smaller and smaller. Many articles, books and databases claim to say that the process of “de-extinction” will morally give us a right of way when speaking of what caused the disappearance of certain animals. While on the other hand, many scientists speak of animals that are now extinct, are extinct for the reason of their inability to adapt to environments. The recent advancements in “synthetic” biology, or the manipulating of the ecological succession of certain species, have led…
Decomposer- A consumer that feeds on organic matter from the bodies of dead organisms. These microorganisms feed from all levels of the food pyramid and are responsible for recycling elements (also called saprobes). The breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycles of living things
Prokaryote- Any of a wide variety of one-celled organisms of the kingdom Monera (or Prokaryota) that are the most primitive and ancient known forms…
ENGL 0870 E02
December 2, 2013
Many products today require companies to test their products regularly and securely. They test their products in plenty of ways. The worst controversial way is animal testing. Animal testing has grown every year it has been in use. Activist groups are forming in an alliance to try and stop these companies from hurting innocent animals. Although some people think that animal testing and…
Animal rights have been protected since 1959 under the three R’s of humane animal experimentation. Most recently, according to the Foundation of Biomedical Research, the USDA has set forth federal regulations governing the care and use of animals in biomedical research that are considered more extensive than those covering human research subjects. This action clearly demonstrates that the pressures brought about by organizations such as People for the Ethical Treatments of Animals (PETA) and…
Evolution explains the features that organisms share and
those that set them apart.
1.5 Ecological Systems
Organisms interact with one another and with their
physical environment, shaping ecological systems that
1.6 The Human Footprint
In the 21st century, humans have become major agents in
ecology and evolution.
Chapter 1 Introduction
The science of how life works; a natural science concerned with the study
of life and living organisms- including their structure, function…