Social & Emotional
Communication & Intellectual
They have very strong attachment to their parents or main carers. Will smile at familiar faces. Will cry when separated from main carer or parent. Do not understand how to share and what is sharing. Start to become independent, feeding themselves or dressing themselves. Will display other emotions such as frustration or anger, though is unaware of these emotions. Learns to say 'no'. Starts to play with other children, and learns to think of others feelings and needs.
Babies are unable to communicate via speech, therefore, use crying as a form of communication. Familiar sounds such as cooing and babbling will follow. They will learn that they have an impact on their environment, so if they cry, the parent or main carer will normally respond. Will learn to point at familiar objects or people. Will start to talk with simple words such as' mama' or 'dada', which will be followed by linking two words, and then progressing on to simple sentences. They can use words to question, answer and share information. Young children will start to draw simple pictures such as a face and/or body.
One of a baby's first physical developments relates to survival and includes sucking in order to feed and grasping reflex. Gross motor skills begin to develop such as rolling over, learning to crawl and then walk, this will be followed by running and jumping. Bladder and bowel control is learnt between the ages of 2-3 years old. Fine motor skills start to develop such as holding a crayon or pencil. Hand-eye coordination improves from maybe learning to stack 2 or 3 blocks to completing first stage puzzles.
A baby will see itself as the centre of the world and will have little interest or knowledge of anything or anyone else around them. Will have no sense of right or wrong until around the age of 2-3 when they begin to learn about those morals.
They start to learn and play in groups rather than independently. Role play starts to appear with imaginative play being much more evident. Learns to share and take turns. Learns to recognise certain emotions in others for example they can recognise if someone is happy or sad. They start to understand the importance of having set boundaries. They enjoy being given small tasks and responsibilities such as being class monitor for register/bags/coats etc.
They will begin to learn to read and write, and this will progress across this age range to understanding past and future tenses. Mathematics, writing and social skills will develop fairly rapidly during this time. Vocabulary will increase and become more complex. They will become more curious asking many questions, therefore increasing their knowledge and confidence. Drawing skills will improve as will problem solving enabling them to complete more complex puzzles and games. Learns to tell simple jokes and understands them.
Gross motor skills develop further, learning to skip, hop and dance rhythmically. Balance and coordination improves . Fine motor skills progress from holding a pencil to learning to write and draw simple shapes which will continue to be refined during this period. Will play sports and develop new skills. Height and weight will increase at a steady rate with body proportion becoming similar to an adults. Strength and energy levels will also increase during this phase.
Is more aware of what behaviour will produce reward or punishment. Is very aware of self and will vocalise whether something is fair or unfair. Will understand rules and boundaries and be aware of consequences. Has strong feelings of what is right and wrong.
Socialising with friends and more importantly groups of friends is the main feature of this stage of development. They will play mostly with the same sex peers and will experience a strong group identity, for example Cubs or Brownies. May still be childish at times, but will display more independence