History of Psychology: * Psychology: Scientific study of behavioral and mental processes * Psychology as a science: The Science of the mind or mental states and processes * 4 Goals of Psychology: To describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes
Describe: tell what occurred Explain: tells the why Predict: under what conditions is the behavior/event likely to occur Control: how is the principle applied or what change in condition is necessary to prevent unwanted occurrence or to bring about a desired outcome. * Phrenology: A psychological theory or analytical method based on the belief that certain mental faculties and character traits are indicated by the configurations of the skull. * Empirical Evidence: Information that is acquired by observation or experimentation. * Psychologists and their theories: W. Wundt – Structuralism, William James - Pragmatism, Max Wertheimer- Gestalt Psychology, Edward B. Titchener – Structuralism influenced by W. Wundt, Ivan Pavlov – Behaviorism, John B. Watson – Behaviorism, B.F Skinner – Reinforcement, Albert Bandura – Social learning theory, Sigmund Freud – Psychoanalysis, Carl Rogers – Theory of self. * Early Schools of Thought: * Structuralism: The analysis of the structure or content of the conscious mind by introspective methods * Functionalism: building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. * Introspection: is the self-examination of one's conscious thoughts and feelings. * Gestalt: a school of thought that looked at the human mind and behavior as wholes rather than attempting to break them up into smaller parts. * Psychoanalysis: thoughts and motivations outside of our awareness influence our behavior * Behaviorism: a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning * Multiple Perspectives: Biological, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Humanistic, Cognitive Cross Cultural, Evolutionary * 7 Modern Perspectives: psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanist, cognitive, neuroscientific/biopsychological, evolutionary, and sociocultural * Psychoanalytic: The theory of personality developed by Freud that focuses on repression and unconscious forces and includes the concepts of infantile sexuality, resistance, transference, and division of the psyche into the id, ego, and superego. * Behavioral: A school of psychology that confines itself to the study of observable and quantifiable aspects of behavior and excludes subjective phenomena, such as emotions or motives. * Biological: Concerned primarily with the relationship between psychological processes and the underlying physiological events—or, in other words, the mind-body phenomenon. * Humanist: a branch of psychology that emphasizes a person's struggle to develop and maintain an integrated, harmonious personality as the primary motivational force in human behavior. * Cognitive: The branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. * Sociocultural: a theory of development that stress the important of socialization on cognitive development. * Evolutionary: The study of the psychological adaptations of humans to the changing physical and social environment, especially of changes in brain structure. * Fields of psychology: Cognitive, Sports, School, Human Factors, Educational, Experimental, Forensic.
Memory * Three-box information processing model: proposes the three stages that information passes through before it is stored. used to describe the process of memory rather than define how and where the brain stores memories physically * Levels of Processing Model: This is a theory of