Leadership and management act as significant factors for the success of an organization. With an overview, business activities of different enterprises are all associated with management and leadership. As a result of intensive connections between these two processes, it seems that leadership and management are similar to a great extent. However, management and leadership are two words that are considered synonymous but describe two different concepts. To understand this topic in-depth, the definitions of management and leadership are clarified as follows. According to Cleaver (2001), management is defined as the organization and co-ordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and with a view to achievement of clearly defined objectives. Burns (1978) defines leadership as “a mobilization process by individuals with certain motives, values and access to resources in a context of competition and conflict in the pursuit of goals.” There are many definitions of leadership and management. One similarity across the majority of these definitions is that they focus on the process of influencing the activities of others.
This essay aims to demonstrate that while similarities between management and leadership do exist, these two processes are different most of the time. In order to illustrate this, firstly, connections between management and leadership will be explored to show the similarities between these two processes from the main key perspectives. Then, a section to distinguish management from leadership will be managed by analyzing several factors such as primary business functions and process evaluations of both management and leadership. Finally, this essay will address potential conflicts which may exist between management and leadership to call for the balance of these two processes.
SECTION 1 CONNECTION BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
1.1 Interactions Between Management and Leadership
Management and leadership are closely linked in business operations. In some cases, in order to remain focused and successful, managers must demonstrate effective leadership skills and a good leader must also be able to properly manage their employees. In the view of Peter (2012), when managers are involved in influencing a number of people to meet its goals, they are involved in leadership. When leaders play a role in planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling, they are involved in management. However, confusion rose because of intensive connections between management and leadership. Some people use terms “management” and “leadership” interchangeably and term “leaders” are used to refer to those who are at the very top of hierarchies. According to Kotter (2013), confusion in the understanding of both leadership and management is widespread, and it seems that in the twenty-first century, this misunderstanding has become a barrier to reasonable discussions which focus on how to build a company and position it for success.
1.2 The Aims of Management and Leadership
Both management and leadership serve as factors to ensure a good operation process in the organization and their similarities can be seen from their aims. In an organization, the goals of management are to accomplish tasks and master routines by planning, budgeting, staffing, establishing rules and procedures (Ricketts, 2009). In a management role, detailed steps and timetables to achieve results are established, which contribute to achievement of the final aim of management, namely, successful operation of an enterprise. This final aim is also shared by leadership through “inculcating diversity, injecting a sense of inspiration, enthusiasm, optimism, and commitment” (Kissinger, 2011).
1.3 Requirements of Effective Leadership in Management
With the movement from the traditional style of management which is hierarchical, organized, disciplined