(Syllabus dot point in Purple)
How does training affect performance?
alactacid system (ATP/PC) lactic acid system aerobic system
Source of fuel
Carbohydrates in the form of glucose in the blood
Carbohydrates, then fat, then protein as a protein as a last resort
Efficiency of ATP production
-can occur without oxygen present
-ATP is more readily available
-Supply of ATP is limited if demand is too high
-provides ATP quickly
-but requires large quantities of glucose
-Extremely efficient: can produce much more energy (from glucose) that the other systems
- enabling us to continue sustained work for longer
Duration that the system can operate
10-12 secs of high intensity activity at 100% max effort
30 seconds to 2 minutes
1 hour and more (unlimited)
Cause of fatigue
-At max effort, fatigue is caused due to the inability of the system to continually resynthesise ADP from CP as CP stores are quickly exhausted
-Fatigue occurs when lactic acid builds up in the muscles.
-High levels of lactic acid prevents muscle fibres contracting and in turn, a rapid deterioration in performance.
-Tolerable levels can be used as a fuel
-activity after an hour can result in glycogen depletion, causing body to tire.
-the point at which the body tires is called “hitting the wall”
Lactic Acid (can hinder performance if not trained to use as a fuel)
Carbon dioxide and water (does not hinder performance)
An explosive movement causes ATP to split, providing energy for muscular contraction. Further muscular work relies on Creatine phosphate breaking down and releasing energy to drive free phosphates back to ADP to form ATP. Once reformed, it can break down again for more energy.
After 10-12 secs CP supplies are exhausted. By using immediate sugar supplies in the blood (Blood-sugar glucose) so that ATP can still be produced to provide energy. (using a new energy system)
Physical activity lasting more than a few minutes requires the presence of oxygen to ensure the continuation of muscular contraction. The aerobic pathway becomes the dominant supplier of ATP.
(by breaking glucose and fat in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP)
Rate of recovery
2 mins (50% after 30 secs and 100% after 2 mins)
30 minutes to 1 hour (following glycogen depletion) takes 24-48 hours- to replenish glycogen stores
100m sprint, long jump, high jump
200m sprint, gymnastics routine, 100m freestyle
Marathon, triathlon, 1500m swim, 5000m run
Types of Training and training methods
Aerobic: increases the efficiency of the aerobic energy system and increases the ability of the body to deliver and use oxygen.
Continuous: continual effort for 20 mins with no rest. Heart rate must rise above the aerobic training threshold and maintained in the aerobic training zone.
Fartlek (speed play/training): adding bursts of speed to a continuous training session. No rests
Aerobic interval: alternating periods of work and recovery. Rest allowed, but shorter than work time so maintain stress on the aerobic system and not allow full recovery.
Circuit: moving from one station to another performing different exercise at each station. Can train certain skills needed for a specific sport e.g. soccer. Can be both aerobic and anaerobic. Work period more than rest period.
Anaerobic: uses the ATP/PC system and Lactic acid systems. Where training activities that require max effort for less than two mins, where oxygen is not a limiting factor.
Anaerobic interval: Same as anaerobic, however rest periods are longer than work time
Flexibility: is the range of movement or motion about a joint. An athlete’s level of flexibility can be affected by age, gender, temperature, exercise history.
Static: muscle is stretched and held in a fixed position for 10-20 secs
Ballistic: muscle is stretched beyond