Lactic acid system
Source of fuel
Unlimited depending upon intensity
Process and rate of recovery
Pc replenishment in 2-5 minutes
Removal of lactic acid with active recovery in 15-30 minutes
Restoration of glycogen
How does training affect performance?
Types of training and training methods:
*Aerobic system: it mostly uses the FITT principle
F: frequency- at least 3 sessions
I: intensity- measures heart rate between 70-85%
T: time- should at least last for 20 minutes
T: type- different type of training without rest at least 20 minutes
*Fartlek training: or ‘speed play’ involves continuous exercise with sprints or a high intensity effort e.g. (cliff) throughout the training.
Strength training: it uses resistance training to muscular contraction to build strength, anaerobic endurance and size of selected muscles e.g. dumbbells, hydraulic machine, isometric
Static: slow controlled movements
PNF –push against resistance
Ballistic: repeated movements
Dynamic: uses speed
Principles of training:
specificity: doing specific exercise for a particular sport reversibility: benefits of exercise is gone threshold: push past your limit progress overload: increase overload in order to maintain improvements variety: various types of physical activities warm up: specific flexibility exercises and skill specific movements cool downs: helps remove lactic acid more quickly from the muscles and blood and enhance recovery
physiological adaptation in response to training
Type of adaptation
Effect on body
Rest beat 70-80 increase Stroke volume
The amount of blood pumped out of your heart per beat increase Oxygen uptake
The rate of oxygen is transported to the muscles
The maximum we inhale and exhale at the end of the exercise
Protein containing iron. It transports oxygen to active muscle (the more air the better) increase Blood pressure
Pressure of blood in blood vessels
Blood volume increases Muscle hydrotherapy: technique involves the use of water immersion to aid recovery.
Slow/ fast twitch fibres: slow twitch fibres use endurance and aerobic training whereas fast twitch fibres are anaerobic e.g. sprints and high intensity training.
How can psychology affect performance?
Motivation positive: perform based on the expectations of rewards negative: perform based on fear of failure or negative consequences intrinsic: own desire extrinsic : external factors
anxiety and arousal state anxiety: result of a specific situation trait anxiety: individual to view situation as threating source of stress: can be intrinsic or extrinsic and could be dealt with through sharing concern
Optimal arousal: relationship between arousal and performance (being ready). Easy task (high arousal- running), difficult task (low or medium arousal- diving)
Psychological strategies to enhance motivation and manage anxiety
Athletes need to find a balance between stress and arousal to allow best performance.
Concentration: focusing on events and blocking external factors
Metal rehearsal of the event: providing a clear idea of what has to be done
Visualisation: athlete picturing themselves successfully performing and it requires being realistic Relaxation techniques: deep breathing and yoga stretches
Step-by-step goal setting: breaking events into achievable steps to reduce stress
Long and short term goals
How can nutrition and