Module Title: Skills for study 1
Assessment Title: Essay
Tutor Name: Salvatore Consoli
Student ID Number: 25289
Assignment Title: Discuss factors that contribute to low life expectancy as well as possible solutions to these factors.
Date of submission: 21/10/2014
Word count: 747
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO LOW HEALTH EXPECTANCY IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Low health expectancy is an issue most developed countries such as China and the united States have been facing for many years. A simple definition of low health expectancy is that it is “ the number of years at a particular age an individual can expect to live in a healthy state” (Sullivan, 1999). Two of many important questions that come to mind are, how many years can a person be expected to live? And what factors could contribute to low health expectancies? There are so many factors that can contribute to high and low life expectancy, but in this case we will be looking at factors that contribute to low health expectancy in developed countries and possible solutions to the factors that will be stated.
One major factor that contributes to low health expectancy is stress and it is a psychological problem. According to Cohen S., Janicki- Deverts D., & Miller.G.E (2007), stress can be linked to all leading causes of death – heart diseases, cancer and stroke. Stress can be both a positive and negative attribute towards health. It can be positive by keeping a person alert and ready to avoid danger. Despite the good stress can do to health, it does more bad than good. Stress becomes negative when an individual begins to face challenges that carry on without relief or any relaxation between challenges.
This problem can gradually lead a person to smoking and abusing drugs in order to find comfort and relaxation and this affects the body long term. Smoking can lead to heart disease, cancer and insomnia Rajita S. (2001). Unfortunately, the drugs and alcohol most people consume as a way to resolve their stress actually worsens their stress levels.
According to research, Ramirez et al (1996), various kinds of stress can lead to chronic pain and can alter the speed and strength of the immune response. Apparently forty-three percent of all adults suffer unfavourable health effects from stress and seventy-five to ninety percent of all doctors’ office visits are for stress related illnesses and complaints. In most cases problems such as headaches, high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, skin conditions, asthma, arthritis, depression, and anxiety are due to stress. Although people who smoke know that smoking kills them, they still continue to smoke and cigarette sale are still at an all time in many countries.
Tobacco smoking is an effective and addictive habit, influencing the behavior of human beings for 4 centuries Nicholas R., et al. The Lung Healthy Study (1994) smoking is now increasing at a dangerously fast rate and if current trends continue, smoking will kill 9 million people annually Nicholas R., et al (1994).
According to JAMA Internal Medicine (2014), approximately fourteen million medical conditions across the U.S can be tied to this bad habit.
A solution that can suppress the want to smoke or abuse drugs in order to relieve stress is to exercise. Its healthy for the body and unlike drugs and alcohol, its free. Another solution to this problem is evaluating oneself and recognizing the symptoms of stress and choosing to take a harmless approach toward solving the problem of stress for the better of ones health.
Wrong eating habits are another factor that greatly contribute to low health expectancy. Eating wrongly (not having a balanced diet) can lead to obesity and cause the body to lack the right vitamins yet have certain vitamins but in unhealthy quantities. In America, the percentages of obese adults aged 20 and over have greatly increased between the years of 2009- 2010.
Obesity can cause breast cancer,