Sociological Perspectives for Health and Social Care
Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions. How they relate to each other and influence individual behaviour.
Functionalism - is one of the theoretical perspectives in sociology. It has its origins in the works of Emile Durkheim, born 1858 and died in 1917. He was especially interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable. He is known today as the godfather of sociology.
Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society. The different parts are primarily the institutions of society, each of which is organized to fill different needs and each of which has particular consequences for the form and shape of society. The parts all depend on each other.
For example, the government, (political) provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the country depends to keep itself running. The family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support their country. If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. If all does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity.
The institutions allow society to run smoothly, they work together and deal with deviant people or groups. Functionalism looks at society works and how they affect individuals. The intuitions in functionalism are:
The family, education, religion, economy and political all of which create the society we live in.
The first primary is the functionalism which refers to that everyone has a purpose in society. Functionalism is like the human body you need organs to work together in order to keep you working the same applies to society as various institutions keep society working and running smoothly. The institutions are religious system, political, the economy, the family and the education system.
• Religious system – religion has many regulations on ways that you have to lead your life, depending on the religion. For example if you are Catholic it is a rule that you cannot have sex before marriage and the crusades, was a war that was between Islam and Christians over holy land. Also terrorists that killed many people over their religious beliefs on the positive side it helps many people to feel comfortable with the unknown and gives them a sense of belonging when been part of a religion. If there was no such thing as religion many people will fear death and without any morals to follow many will rebel against life. Hatred would be a common feeling. And our communities in the world tend to join when a seasonal holiday comes round for example when it is Christmas most of us get into the spirit of Christmas and spread joy to others, in order to make others happy without religion we wouldn’t celebrate Christmas and other holidays.
• The family is who are your loved ones, they can be biological members and are born in to the family for example I am from my mother, she loves me, teaches me, guides me and influences me her views on life but your family is also your environment and your friends. Your environment and friends can teach you social skills and teach you how to interact with one or other.
• Education is where a person can learn and develop. Formal education is provided in schools, colleges and universities, but we learn from life experiences as well. If we had no education we would have no knowledge of how to read and write therefore their wouldn’t be many jobs available, we wouldn’t be able to drive as there would be no road