* Written Codes – these refer to any written words that are present in an image or film. These include: * Headings and subheadings Subtitles Logos Labels * Font and Size Placement of writing Signs * EG: In Stand By Me we see the computer screen as the narrator is typing his story. This shows how the story about his growing up has become his life. As he switches off the computer this symbolizes that now he has told that story, recorded it, he can move on and spend more time being a father.
* Audio Codes – these refer to the sounds we hear in films. These include: * Music Sound Effects Dialogue * EG: At the beginning and the end of the film the narrator is an adult reflecting on an experience that was very important in terms of his growing up; a rite of passage towards adulthood. Behind the reflective narration the music is soft and thoughtful to match his mood. This sets the tone for his fond memories of his friends and the sadness he feels at learning about the death of his best friend Chris Chambers.
* Technical Codes – these refer to the technical construction of the image/film. It includes: * Camera Angles Camera Shot Camera Movement Lighting Framing Perspective Layout * Leading lines * EG: The camera is almost always at the same level of the four main boys, showing the world as they experience it. Whenever they interact with adults, the camera is looking up at the adults to show how powerless these boys feel in the world of adults. That is, until the end when Chris and Gordie stand up to Ace, at which point the camera angle shows that they are no longer afraid of Ace; he won’t intimidate them anymore.
A camera shot is the amount of space that is seen in one shot or frame. Camera shots are used to demonstrate different aspects of a film's setting, characters and themes. As a result, camera shots are very important in shaping meaning in a film. Reviewing the examples on the right hand side of this page should make the different camera shots clearer.
* An extreme long shot contains a large amount of landscape. It is often used at the beginning of a scene or a film to establish general location (setting). This is also known as an establishing shot.
* A long shot contains landscape but gives the viewer a more specific idea of setting. A long shot may show the viewers the building where the action will take place.
* A full shot contains a complete view of the characters. From this shot, viewers can take in the costumes of characters and may also help to demonstrate the relationships between characters. For more information on costumes and acting refer to Chapter 4.
* A mid shot contains the characters or a character from the waist up. From this shot, viewers can see the characters' faces more clearly as well as their interaction with other characters. This…