- Behavioral geography research (why/how people decide where to go for everything) - Behavior in Space: Place specific - considers the geographic distribution of opportunities for crime - Spatial Behavior: Focuses on individuals and their difference in spatial knowledge * Mental Maps: Vague image of geography of that area but differs with age/race * Awareness Space: Detailed image of geography of area (criminal safe haven) - Nodes are places that are central to individual - Activity Space is the area that is regularly traveled by individual - Paths are everyday routes taken by individual - Crime happens in the awareness space created by the nodes and paths * Journey To Crime: Distance traveled by criminals to commit crimes - Buffer Distance is a set distance the criminal uses to avoid detention - Distance decay is when the distance is so big, the crime isn't committed - Criticism: People assumed the crime started very near the house - Criticism: People become over-reliable on their data and lose their guard * Geographic Profiling: Uses routine activity, rationale choice, and all above - Rossmo: Square. Determines the residence of the offender - Canter: Gives practical search area for law enforcement - Levine: Uses the JTC model (statistical model) - Centrographic Model: Uses mean center and minimum distance
- Epidemic: Affecting a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population * Common Source: sharp peak and rapid decline; contaminated source * Host to Host/Propagated: slow to grow and diminish; infected person in population * Pathogenesis: development of any disease
- Displacement: Physically moved out of position * Geographical: Crime moves from one place to another * Temporal: Crime moves from one time to another * Target: Crime moves from one target/victim to another
- Diffusion: Poured out and caused to spread * Criminal: Spreading of crime from one place to another - Contagious: Direct contact and occurs between adjoining areas/cities * Relocation: Spreads outward from that point * Expansion: Original area still has high crime but so do the others - Hierarchical: Spreads broadly through commonly shared influences * Diffusion of Benefits: additional benefits of crime prevention beyond what is expected - Reverse of displacement: wider reductions in crime beyond reach of prevention - Also known as the multiplier effect, halo effect, bonus effect, free rider effect
- Policing: Pin maps to analyze basic crime patterns (back in the day)
- Policing: Mapping can help with patrol officers, investigations and managers
- Always remember audience when making a map
- Patrol officer maps need to focus on informing officers and must include most recent data
- Investigation maps can be maps of criminal offense patterns to criminal intelligence
- Police manager maps are designed to cover a range of issues; problem oriented, community
- Mapping with courts and corrections is far less advanced and not used as much if any at all
- Mapping for probation/parole works for investigations, half way houses and treatment centers
1) Explain the difference between large scale and small scale and discuss their importance to map design. It represents reality and the ratio used in small/large scale maps relates to the distances that one can encounter in real life. Large scale maps show small areas and small scale maps show large area.
2) Where does map design take place in ArcMap? The map design takes place in Layout.
3) What two map features are controlled through a dynamic link to the view mode? Zoom In and Zoom out.
4) What four editing changes can be made to the basic map elements? Title, legend, scale, and compass.
5) What are two of the most important things to consider when designing? Audience (who) Medium (how) it reads.