After my trip to the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, I chose the Virgin and Child in a Landscape (paintings | oil on panel, 41 1/4 x 34 1/4 in. (104.78 x 87 cm) (panel) 53 1/2 x 34 3/16 in. (135.89 x 86.84 cm) (outer frame), Europe, Netherlands 15th-16th century, c. 1492-1498). This framed piece was located in the European Art from early 1500-1600s section. Also the piece was marked with the other Early Netherlandish works of art. It is said that the artist was a painter or a group of painters called Master of the Embroidered Foliage (active 1480 – 1500). He/She/ or them was a Netherlandish painter or a group of painters that worked in and out of Bruges and Brussels. Historians argued even ‘til recently that this panel painting was a series of paintings by multiple artists due to the same and identical Virgin and Child figures used within different scenes and backgrounds. To begin with, the painting was originally an altarpiece used as a devotional image in a Christian and Early European Church. By the way, the subject matter in this work of art is focused on the Virgin who is Mary and the Child who is Jesus Christ. Also there is many other symbols that reflect the message of this popular scene where Christ is sitting upon Mary’s knee while she rests the bible on her other knee. These symbols were imposed into this work to reinforce the relations of the subject matter to the story it is trying to narrate to the viewer. First thing first, the piece is divided into three grounds; the foreground, middle, and background. Eyeing the foreground, The Virgin Mary is comfortably resting in the middle of the piece; appearing to be sitting on some sort of a throne or chair. Also a patterned thresh or rug conforms her feet that are layered behind her drape. Both the Virgin and the Child are placed and surrounded by a walled garden that differentiates from the middle and background landscape. This walled garden refers to the garden in the Bible’s Canticle of Canticles (also called the Song of Songs or Song of Solomon) 4:12, in Latin: "Hortus conclusus soror mea, sponsa, hortus conclusus, fons signatus" ("A garden enclosed is my sister, my spouse; a garden enclosed, a fountain sealed up." Coupled with the fact that in Early European/Dutch Art the sacred doctrine was to portray the Virgin Mary near a close garden/yard. Thus, it would illustrate her perpetual virginity that would be represented figuratively as her “enclosed womb” or “closed off womb”. Not to be excluded, the walled garden in the foreground is covered in flowering plants acting as symbols to also reveal the iconography of the Virgin Mary. The blue iris flower refers to the sorrows of the Virgin; specifically the blue color of the iris represents the fidelity of Mary. Its blade-shaped verdure symbolized the sorrows that would pierce the heart of Mary in Luke 2:35 – “and a sword will pierce through your own soul also…” Graceful violets in front of her allude to her humility and innocence as the Blessed Virgin Mary. As well, the strawberry plant symbolizes her righteousness as the blessed one and sacred one God chose. In Vincenzina Krymow’s Mary's Flowers in Legends, Gardens and Meditations, he states that the strawberry was called Fruitful Virgin and it was told that Mary would go a-berrying with her Son on St. John's Day, June 24. Also that any mother who had lost a child would not eat strawberries on that day for if she did, Mary would say to her child in heaven, "You must stand aside for your mother has eaten your share, and none remains for you." In addition to the walled garden and the flowering plants that symbolize the importance of the Virgin Mary is also the peacock sitting on the gate that encloses the garden. The peacock signifying paradise over the garden shifts the symbolism of her presence overall to her importance in the tales of purity to God and Annunciation. Krymow also acknowledges that in a passage…
April 16, 2014
The 19th century was a devastating situation for Native American because during this time period they would be forced to leave their native lands. America was expanding towards the west, and they wanted more land and resources. The Indians were seen as uncivilized, and they were looked down upon because of the way they lived. Americans often misunderstood them because of the rituals they practice, and because of this there were many attempts to…
Art Historian Book
Art Historian Book
The first historical evidence of a culture can be found in the artifacts of the earliest homo sapiens from 35,000 years ago. Every time period in the history of the world has offered something special to the world of art. From the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages to the Renaissance to today. We can look about and marvel at the greatness of the artist from our past.
The ancient Egyptian civilization developed slowly…
Belgium, ca. 1793
Jan van Eyck - Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Ghent, Belgium, 1432
Jan van Eyck - Ghent Altarpiece (opened), Ghent, Belgium, 1432
Jan van Eyck - The Arnolfini Wedding, National Gallery, London, 1434
Jan Vermeer - Allegory of the Art of Painting, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria, ca. 1670-1675
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres - Grande Odalisque, Louvre, Paris, 1814
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin - Saying Grace, 1740
Jean-François Millet - The Gleaners, Louvre, Paris…
Art History Essay 3.4
The Italian renaissance took place in the early 15th Century. During this period mediums such as fresco and tempera were common with the later introduction of oil. Fresco was used by covering a wall in fresh plaster and painting over it while still wet, this medium was hard to blend and had to be done using a hatching method. This was a medium that had been used in the past and was still quite popular. However it was very hard to correct mistakes and the colours were very…
Impressionism (1865 – 1900)
• Depiction of everyday, leisure class life
• To capture the fleeting, ever changing effects of dappled light
• Style/painting approach influenced by two inventions: 1. The portable camera and 2. Paint tubes (portable)
• Commercially available paint allows for painting ‘en plein air’
• Artists capture a quick impression of a scene using painterly, choppy fleeting brush strokes (evidence of the artist’s hand)
• Considered messy and unfinished by…
Paris W ebb
Art History III
Midterm Exam - Essay questions
3.Discuss the differences between Baroque architecture and Neoclassical architecture. Select at least one example representing each style to parallel.
Baroque is dramatic, over the top, very decorative and lavish. Classical is symmetrical, rational, and calm looking. There were other movements that affected literature, painting, and so. However, these two are considered the mother currents of the architecture we know today. Even though…
Art History 01
Art History has unveiled cloaked ideas. Heading into the class I did not anticipate much, simple history format with a heading of the arts. However, after roughly six weeks of lecture as well as an “on the house” ticket to the Legion of Honor in San Francisco, I’m glad to have chosen this class in particular. One cannot ask for a professor with her own spunk and swag to keep the class interesting.
Chapter 7. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus…
Art History 1
September 25, 2014
Evolution of Architecture
The way a city is built and set up tells one of the many features as to the main goals and ideas of a civilization. Some time periods are based around common themes of prayer, tribute to the dead, and the actual way of life of many cultures. When taking a look into the Neolithic time period, Catal Hoyuk and Jericho seem to be two of the first experiences with urban living. In the Ancient Near East, daily…
Land art: Robert Smithson.
Step One: Smithson chooses the location on the north eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake near Rozel point in Utah. Smithson chose this location based on the blood red colour of the water and its connection with the primordial sea.
Step Two: Smithson didn’t know what he wanted to do in the space until he got there and was inspired by the red water and the lakes salt crystals, which grow in a spiralling, crystalline formation.
Step Three: Smithson then makes various…
at that are equally and simultaneously. Style is not always transmits particularity of time in which it arises and develops, and often only embodies the ideals and dreams of the creators. The Renaissance era is a prime example of such a mismatch of art and reality, it was the transformation of minds, not of life, imagination, not reality, culture, not civilization. In fact, the real life of even the most advanced cities of that time was full of medieval brutality, wars, conspiracies, bloodshed. Namely…