Essay on Final Exam Review Project

Submitted By Karan-Shridharani
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Pages: 6

Karan Shridharani
Final Exam Review Project
Mrs. Parrot
Block 2

Unit 1
­ Matter
Basics
● Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
● Energy is the ability to do work or the ability to move or elicit change in matter.
● All matter is made up of particles
● Properties are what we use to identify different substances.
● Physical Properties are shown without any change in composition.
● Chemical Properties are any characteristics that gives a sample of matter , the ability, inability to undergo change that alters its composition.
States of Matter
● Solid­ has definite shape and volume.
● Liquid­ no definite, shape but a definite volume.
● Gas­ no definite shape or volume
Changes in matter
● Matter can move from one phase to another if the motion of the atoms are altered by the pressure or temperature.
● Melting­ Changes from solid to a liquid.
● Freezing­ The changes from liquid to solid.
● Vaporization­ change from liquid to gas.
● Evaporation­ vaporization from the surface of a liquid
● Condensation­ The change from a gas to liquid.
● Deposition­ Change from gas to solid.

● Sublimation­ The change from a solid to gas

● Temperature is a measure of the average heat or thermal energy of the particles in a substance. ● It is the property of matter which reflects the quantity of energy of motion of the matters particles.
● It means that temperature is measurable.
● Mass is how much matter is in an object.
● Volume is the quantity of three­dimensional space occupied by a liquid, solid ir gas.
● V=L*W*H
● Density is how much mass a material has for a given volume
● Density= Mass/Volume
Periodic Table
● The periodic table is a table of all the elements in the universe.
● The periodic table was created by Dimitri Mendeleev.
● Arranged in vertical columns called groups or families.
● Horizontal rows are called periods.
● Number of protons found in the nucleus called atomic number.
● Atomic weight is number of protons and neutrons.
Metals
● Solid
● Shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity.
● ductile(can be drawn into thin wires)
● malleable(can be hammered into very thin sheets.)

● Tend to lose electrons easily.
Nonmetals
● Properties opposite of metals.
● Brittle
● Not malleable or ductile
● Poor conductors of heat and electricity,
● Tend to gain electrons in chemical changes.
Metalloids
● Properties are cross of metals and nonmetals.
● Only partially conduct electricity.

Electrons
● Electrons are the negatively charged particles of an atom.
● Found in clouds that surround the nucleus of an atom.
● Electron Cloud is the area around the nucleus in which the electrons are found.
● Electrons play a major role in all chemical bonding.
● It is the number of electrons in the outer energy level that determines the chemical properties of an element.
● Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell.
● Elements in the same column have the same amount of valence electrons.
Atoms
● A substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances.
● A compound is a substance made of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined. ● A mixture are two or more substances that have been mixed together but not chemically combined
● Homogeneous mixtures are where the components make up a mixture that are uniformly distributed throughout the mixture.
● Heterogeneous mixtures are where the components of the mixture are not uniform or have localized regions with different properties.
Chemical Reactions
● Exothermic reactions give off heat and energy.
● Endothermic reactions take in heat and energy.
Conservation of Mass
● Mass can not be created nor destroyed
Electron Dot Structures
● Amount of valence electrons in the outer layer of the atom.
Energy and Waves
Energy
● Energy is the ability to do work.
● Work is the application of a force over a distance
● Work= force x distance
● You must have energy to accomplish work
● The…