Final Exam Study Guide Essay

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Terms and Concepts
Pollution exporting: The process of exporting industrial pollution and other waste material to other countries. * Direct: Waste is simply shipped abroad for disposal * Indirect: Highly polluting factories are constructed abroad *
Population aging:

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ):

Ideographic writing: A writing system in which each symbol represents not a sound but a concept.

* Confucianism: A philosophical system based on the ideas of Confucius, a Chinese philosopher who stressed education and the importance of respecting authority figures and the importance of authority figures acting in a responsible manner. * 6th century BCE * East Asia


Opium Wars:


Three Gorges Dam:

Special Economic Zones: Relatively small districts in China that have been fully opened to global capitalism.

Human Development Index (HDI): Social development in the world’s countries that combine data on life expectancy, literacy, educational attainment, gender equity, and income * UN has been tracking for past 3 decades

Crony capitalism: A system in which close friends of a political leader are either legally or illegally given business advantages in return for their political support.

Indian Diaspora: The historical and contemporary propensity of Indians to migrate to other countries in search of better opportunities. * Led to large Indian populations in South Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands, along with Western Europe and North America

Hindi: Indo-European language with more than 480 million speakers. * 2nd largest language group in the world * Dominant language in India

Hindu Nationalism: Contemporary “fundamental” religious and political movement that promotes Hindu values as the essential (and exclusive) fabric of Indian society. * Less tolerant of India’s large Muslim minority

Sikhism: An Indian religion combining Islamic and Hindu elements, founded in the Punjab region in the late 15th century.

Outsourcing: A business practice that transfers portions of a company’s production and service activities to a lower-cost settings, often located overseas.

Monsoon: Distinct seasonal change of wind direction which corresponds to wet and dry periods. * Warm and rainy from June to October * Cool and dry from November to February * Hot from March through May

Green Revolution: A set of technologies aimed at increasing agricultural productivity. * New higher yielding seed types * Chemical fertilizer and pesticides * Irrigation * Results in greatly increased agricultural yields

The Partition (1947): Division of former British colonies into independent states of Pakistan and India * Muslim Pakistan * Hindu India


Domino theory: A U.S. geopolitical policy of the 1970’s that stemmed from the assumption that if Vietnam fell to the Communists, the rest of Southeast Asia would soon follow.

Pacific Ring of Fire:

Tsunami: A very large sea wave induced by earthquakes.


Typhoons: A large tropical storm, similar to a hurrican, that

Shifting cultivation:

Swidden (slash-and-burn agriculture): A form of cultivation in which forested of brushy plots are cleared of vegetation, burned, and then planted to crops, only to be abandoned a few years later as soil fertility declines

Primate city: Largest urban settlement in a country that dominates all other urban places, economically and politically. * Often but not always the capital

Lingua franca: An agreed-upon common language to facilitate communication on specific topics such as international business, politics, sports, or entertainment.

Linguistic nationalism: The