Management has been studied by several theorists who learnt from their own practical experiences and then announced distinct doctrines, management styles and methods to manage. Brooks (2009) stated that classical schools had been recognized to be one of the most influential among all the schools. On the account of the traditional and scientific style of management, this research paper will analyze attitudes of managers towards their labor force based on the scientific management style. It will also show that even though these theories were evolved in the early twentieth century, they are still presented in institutions nowadays and are still implemented in this day and age.
II/ ATTITUDES OF MANAGERS TOWARDS THEIR LABORFORCES
According to Ryan (2008), management is a series of activities (scheduling, decision taking, organizing, leading and controlling) administrated with resources of an organization with the target of accomplishing organizational objectives effectively and efficiently. Wolfgang, et al. (1995) stated that management had been explored since 3000 BC in Ur (Iraq) where created documents as a means of storing business transactions were found. Management was proven to be fundamental for every firm to operate their businesses effectively. Without good management, corporations cannot direct their employees effectively which will lead to the waste of motion and ineligibility of product quality. In the turn of the 21st century, businesses were increasing and capital was available. In the mean time, workforce was inadequate (Ryan, 2008). Management started to examine methods to develop efficiency and effectiveness. At that time, Frederick W. Taylor from the Midvale Steel Company took the cognizance of the great of scientific management styles in increasing productivity. He discovered a perfect management that could create more products with smaller effort and time. Afterwards, he put forward an idea named scientific management as known as Taylorism. Thompson (1993) regarded scientific management as a discovery rather than an invention as almost all the ideas in scientific management had already been known, Taylor was the one combining them into one. He interprets the important factors of the industrial organization theory which he himself had met in his very first years as a manager at Midvale. He also perceives that science can be time-saving and beneficial to the entire society. The central term of scientific management is that each individual has so disparate capacity to perform a variety of tasks that it would be better to allocate them appropriate tasks based on their best ability to have the work finished easier.
Frank and Gilberth are well known for completing Taylor’s ideas. Shaun Ryan (2008) claimed that they had been widely popular for their movies “Cheaper by the Dozen” in which they showed how to raise their 12 children. Frank and Lillian utilized both time and motion researches to raise efficacy and raised the morale of workers by designing a promotion system as well. They understood that tedium and lassitude in the workplace will make a great impact on productivity so they made a campaign against that issue. This doctrine brought a development in scientific management theory.
Another one complementing scientific management was Henry Grantt who was best known for a branch of his study and extra system. His idea was when employees can complete allocated task in less time they will be paid an extra as a reward. The core rule of his system was based on the consummation of an allocated number of works in a certain time. He improved planning and control techniques which used an uncomplicated graphic bar chart, the Grantt chart to represent planned-completed task relationship on one axis and passed time on the other (Wolfgang et al. 1995). According to Taylor’s observation, workers performed below their ability on purpose which he called soldiering. They did that because of the fear that the