Napoleon Bonaparte—ruler of france
Congress of Vienna -- a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired
Conservative—supported the political and social order that existed before the French Revolution
Liberal—wanted governments to be based on written constitutions and separation of powers
Radical – to designate individuals, parties, and movements that wish to alter drastically any existing practice, institution, or social system
Reform Bill of 1832 – It was about the right to vote and the fair number of representatives in the House of Commons in the British Parliament.
Chartist Movement -- All men to have the vote (universal manhood suffrage), Voting should take place by secret ballot, Parliamentary elections every year, not once every five years, Constituencies should be of equal size, Members of Parliament should be paid, & The property qualification for becoming a Member of Parliament should be abolished.
Transformismo -- the members of the ministry do not necessarily belong to one political party, but are selected from all parties, on account of their individual influence and the votes that they can command in the chamber.
Socialism – the people as a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production
Karl Marx – a german philosopher
Otto von Bismark -- a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890
Guiuseppe Garibaldi -- an Italian general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy, considered himself one of the fathers of the fatherland.
Camillo Cavour -- an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification
Kaiser -- the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918
Imperialism – domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.
Protectorate – country with its own government but under the control of an outside power
Colony -- a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country
Sphere of Influence – area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges.
Qing Dynasty -- the final dynasty of the Chinese Empire, which ruled from 1644 to 1912. The Qing were ethnic Manchus of the Aisin Gioro clan, from the northern Chinese region of Manchuria.
Taiping Rebellion -- radical political and religious upheaval that was probably the most important event in China in the 19th century. It ravaged 17 provinces, took an estimated 20,000,000 lives, and irrevocably altered the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12).
Opium War -- fought between Great Britain and China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice for foreign nationals
Self-Strengthening Movement -- a campaign to modernise China’s economic and military sectors
Boxer Rebellion -- an anti-foreigner uprising in Qing China, which took place from November of 1899 through September of 1901
Puyi -- the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty
Sepoy – Indian soldier in an army set up by the French or English East India company
Matthew Perry -- a Commodore of the U.S. Navy and commanded a number of ships. He served in several wars, most notably in the Mexican-American War and the War of 1812
Zaibatsu – since the late 1800s, powerful banking and industrial families in Japan.
Sino-Japanese War -- (1894–1895) between China (the Qing Dynasty) and Japan (the Empire of Japan), primarily over control of Korea
Yellow Peril -- a color metaphor for race that originated in the late nineteenth century with Chinese immigrants as coolie slaves or laborers to various Western countries, notably the United States.