1. Product costs: It consists of manufacturing costs such as direct materials, direct labor, and factory overhead.
2. Period costs: It consists of selling and administrative expense such as advertising expense, sales salaries expense, commissions expense, office salaries expense, office supplies expense, depreciation expense, and building and equipment.
3. Prime costs: It consists of direct materials and direct labor costs.
4. Conversion costs: It consists of direct labor and factory overhead costs.
Life expectancy at birth is the expected number of the year of people in a statistical perspective. Recently, life expectancy around the world has been increased compared with the past thanks to development of the society including health care systems, foods, economy, and so on. First of all, the most important thing to notice is that life expectancy must be an average of ages of the population because life spans of people might be shorter or longer than expected ages because of some accidents, diseases, wars, or medical care. I have been interested in this topic and various causes for it which influence to life spans of people of different countries, because Japan which is my home country has one of the longest life expectancy in the world in this past dicades. People have national health insurance and they can get medical services at a low price in Japan. For example, national insurance can cover about 70 percent of the cost of the operation for appendicitis or other diseases, and people under 17 years old who do some sports can be treated with surgery at a low cost when they get injured. In this way, it is conceivable that long life expectancy of Japanese people is related with the development of national health insurance; however, they have to pay various kinds of taxes every month in order to get insurance system. In another word, the factors to decide human’s life expectancy are not only insurance, but also finance of the government. In this way, there are several factors to determine human life expectancy at birth, and this paper analyzes these factors or causes which are connected with each other. Therefore, I would like to research the reasons of big gaps of average life expectancy between different countries and different time, and how it is determined by different social or environmental factors.
Background Description One of the best ways to grasp the significance of the change of life expectancy is to understand its history. As it was stated above, the life expectancy of people around the world has become longer from the past with human evolution.
According to Rorabaugh, Critchlow, and Baker, life expectancy was only about 35 years in 1600s in England because about two-thirds of children died before four years old. The life expectancy of Colonial America was also about 25 years in Virgin colony, and about 40 percent of children in New England died before reached adulthood (p.47-48). In fact, according to Halley, using the data for city of Breslau, Germany from 1687 to 1691, people started to study the total population and calculated an average life expectancy at birth of 33.5 years, and newborn infants are expected the life expectancy of 23.5 years on average…