Bookkeeping in the context of a business is simply the recording of financial transactions. Transactions include purchases, sales, receipts and payments by an individual or organization. Many individuals mistakenly consider bookkeeping and accounting to be the same thing. This confusion is understandable because the accounting process includes the bookkeeping function, but is just one part of the accounting process. The accountant creates reports from the recorded financial transactions recorded by the bookkeeper and files forms with government agencies. There are some common methods of bookkeeping such as the single-entry bookkeeping system and the double-entry bookkeeping system. But while these systems may be seen as "real" bookkeeping, any process that involves the recording of financial transactions is a bookkeeping process.
Bookkeeping is usually performed by a bookkeeper. A bookkeeper (or book-keeper), also known as an accounting clerk or accounting technician, is a person who records the day-to-day financial transactions of an organization. A bookkeeper is usually responsible for writing the "daybooks". The daybooks consist of purchases, sales, receipts, and payments. The bookkeeper is responsible for ensuring all transactions are recorded in the correct day book, suppliers ledger, customer ledger and general ledger.
Management accounting or managerial accounting is concerned with the provisions and use of accounting information to managers within organizations, to provide them with the basis to make informed business decisions that will allow them to be better equipped in their management and control functions.
In contrast to financial accountancy information, management accounting information is: primarily forward-looking, instead of historically model based with a degree of abstraction to support decision making generically, instead of case based; designed and intended for use by managers within the organization, instead of being intended for use by shareholders, creditors, and public regulators; usually confidential and used by management, instead of publicly reported; computed by reference to the needs of managers, often using management information systems, instead of by reference to general financial accounting standards.
Capital expenditures (CAPEX or capex) are expenditures creating future benefits. A capital expenditure is incurred when a business spends money either to buy fixed assets or to add to the value of an existing fixed asset with a useful life extending beyond the taxable year.
CAPEX are used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as equipment, property, or industrial buildings. In the case when a capital