By: Victor Florez
Fingerprint Identification Many people contributed to the discovery and advancement of fingerprinting technology. Some of the major contributors include Henry Frauds who discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. Juan Vucetich, an Argentine Police Official, began the first fingerprint files based on
Galton pattern types. At first, Vucetich included the Bertillon System with the files. Haque and
Bose reported that fingerprints should be used for classification of criminal records. Later that year, the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau became the world's first Fingerprint Bureau.Haque and Bose are the two Indian fingerprint experts credited with primary development of the
Henry System of fingerprint classification. And Edward Richard Henry appeared before the inquiry com mittee to explain the system published in his recent book "The Classification and
Use of Fingerprints." The committee recommended adoption of fingerprinting as a replacement for the relatively inaccurate Bertillon system of anthropometric measurement, which only partially relied on fingerprints for identification.
A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges found on the inner surface of a finger or a thumb. Ridge patterns and the details in small areas of friction ridges are unique and never repeated.Friction ridges develop on the fetus in their definitive form before birth.
Ridges are persistent throughout life except for permanent scarring. Friction ridge patterns vary within limits which allow for classification. There are three main fingerprint patterns: arches, loops and whorls. There are four types of arch patterns: plain arches, radial arches, ulnar arches and tented arches. Plain arches have an even flow of ridges from one side to the other of the pattern, no “significant up thrusts” and the ridges enter on one side of the impression, and flow out the other with a rise or wave in the center. The ridges of radial arches slope towards the thumb, have one delta and no recurving ridges. On ulnar arches, the ridges slope towards the little finger, have one delta and no recurving ridges. Tented arches have an angle, an up thrust, or two of the three basic characteristics of the loop. They don’t have the same "easy" flow that plain arches do and particularly have “significant up thrusts” in the ridges near the middle that arrange themselves on both sides of a spine or axis towards which the adjoining ridges converge and appear to form tents.
Each loop pattern has is one delta and one core and has a ridge count. Radial loops are named after the radius, a bone in the forearm that joins the hand on the same side as the thumb. The flow of the pattern in radial loops runs in the direction of the radius (toward the thumb). Radial loops are not very common and most of the time radial loops will be found on the index fingers. Ulnar loops are named after the ulna, a bone in the forearm. The ulna is on the same side as the little finger and the flow of the pattern in a ulnar loop runs in the direction of the ulna (toward the little finger). In a whorl, some of the ridges make a turn through at
least one circuit. Any fingerprint pattern which contains 2 or more deltas will be a whorl pattern. There are four types of whorl patterns. Plain whorls consist of one or more ridges which make or tend to make a complete circuit with two deltas,