FIRST AID SUMMARY NOTES (double sided)
This could be the result of a range of circumstances, including: a car accident drowning electric shock a serious sporting injury a heart attack a stroke drug overdose
Envenomation (bites by snakes, spiders, etc.).
To deal with this quickly, effectively and without risk to yourself or others, you need to
Analyse the situation. Observe what has happened (poisoning, car accident, drowning, etc.) and ask yourself: ‘What’s the best I can do for this person(s) in terms of the skills that I have?’
Plan how to deal with the situation. Prioritise your intended actions, dealing with the most important issues first. – Use bystanders (if available) to get medical assistance and help where necessary. – Minimise danger to yourself and others. – Clear airways and restore breathing. – Control bleeding. – Tend to other injuries, such as burns and fractures.
1. Yourself – can’t help if you yourself is injured.
2. Bystander- Keeping them safe.
3. Casualty- Treatment of casualty.
Acting quickly but calmly.
Assess priority of patients
Check for dangers & hazards to the rescuer, bystanders & the casualty.
Assessment of the level of consciousness of the casualty.
Open, clear & maintain the casualty’s airway. Check signs of life.
If casualty is not breathing commerce rescue breathing.
If no signs of life commence CPR which is a combination of chest compressions & rescue breaths.
Where possible ensure a defibrillator is utilised as quickly as possible.
Examining a casualty
Primary examination- basic info about the casualty & the incident.
Secondary examination- gain more thorough understanding of a conscious casualty & their condition.
If casualty is unconscious:
Check for any life threatening bleeding & control immediately.
Collect history from casualty & bystanders.
Make a decision on how to proceed forward & which treatment is required.
If conscious, ask these questions:
1. What happened?
2. Where does it hurt the most?
3. Can you take a deep breath?
Use SAMPLE in primary examination.
igns & symptoms
ast time they ate/drank
vent (what happened, where, when?)
4 vital signs to record
revent further injury
Is caused by cuts, contusions, lacerations and abrasions. Is the loss of blood from any of the body’s blood vessels. If the blood comes from an artery it will be bright red and may spurt. If the blood is from a vein it will be darker and the flow is not as forceful. If the blood is from a capillary it will tend to ooze. The first two types of cut are life threatening and require immediate attention.
is a condition where the body closes off the blood supply to the extremities
(arms, legs and skin) to ensure enough oxygen reaches vital organs (heart, lungs
And brain). This can be potentially damaging and even life threatening as it may
Lead to the collapse of the circulatory system.
Neck & spinal injury
The signs and symptoms of a neck or spinal injury are:
• pain at or below the site of the injury
• loss of movement
• lack of movement below the site of the injury
• tingling in the hands or feet.
Moving the casualty
Unless absolutely essential, a casualty should not be moved. However, there may be some situations where it is necessary to move a casualty quickly, such as
• from a smoke-filled room
• to higher ground level because of rising water
• From a building that is in danger of collapse.
The patient needs to be sent to hospital if any of the following happened:
• CPR was required
• the patient was unconscious at some stage
• Conditions such as a heart attack or spinal injury were suspected.
Care of the unconscious casualty
Proper care of an