A scene survey is the first thing you do when you get to where the casualty is, basically the first aider has to survey whether there is anything dangerous around or on the floor, for example broken glass, this should take up to 30 seconds. #
A primary survey is where you check the casualty is still breathing, by putting your ear to their mouth with your face looking down towards their chest to see whether you can see their chest moving. A first aider would also check the patients airway, and make it easier for the patient to breath by tilting their head upwards, this will clear the airway. If there is no repsonse, it is the first aiders responsibilty to call for help.
If the casualty is not breathing, the first aider would perform CRP. For an adult it would be two rescue breaths and thirty chest compressions with both hands, then repeat if the casualty is unresponsive, for a child ( over the age of twelve months) it would be five rescue breaths then thirty chest compressions, but only with one hand if unresponsive repeat but only with two rescue breaths, for a baby ( under the age of twelve months) it would be five resue breaths, with thirty chest compressions with two fingers, if unresponsive repeat but do 2 rescue breaths instead of five. A first aider should stop CPR if the patient starts breathing again, if the first aider is tired and if a paramedic comes.
If the casualty is breathing you woulkd put them into the recovery position, this will help them breathe as it clears their airway, also if they need to vomit, they wont choke, it will just flow out freely.
If a child is choking, you must give them five firm back slaps then check to see whether you can see the object in their mouth if not repeat the five back slaps, the first aider must take responsibility in calling for help, then if the child is still choking repeat the five backslaps then do five chest thrusts to try and dilodge the object.
First Aid at Work:
Bandages- For example when going to bandage a fore arm get the patient to sit down and apply pressure to their own arm, this will prevent excessive bleeding, whilst the patient is doing this, the first aider will be putting on protective clothing equipment such as, disposable gloves and aprons.
Whilst dealing with any injury a patient may have, the first aider must look out for signs and symptoms of shock, for example, paleness, sweating, temperature runs cold, dizzyness/ lightheaded and nausea/vommiting. If these symptoms occur get the patient to put their head between their legs or, lay them on the floor with their legs rised upon a chair, this will increase the blood flow to the brain.
Grazez/cuts- To treat a graze or a cut you would put it under cold running water, if you are in an environment where there is no water you would use alcoholic wipes, using one, once then throwing it away, this prevents infections. Pat the wound dry, then apply a plaster if needed.
Burns- To treat a burn wound you would put it under cold water for apporximately ten minutes, or use an alcoholic wipe, then cover the burn with a sterile gauze, then apply a bandage, the bandage prevents any air getting to the burn, which would cause blisters or scarring. All children under the age of five must be checked out by a doctor or a paramedic, if they go into shock during the procedure.
Splinters- To treat a splinter, you would need to clean the area with water, then using sterile tweezers, grip the splinter gently and pull it out in the direction it went in. If the wound bleeds, clean it with an alcoholic wipe, preventing infection and apply a plaster if needed.
Types of bleeding:
Arterial- Blood gushes ( e.g. like a hosepipe) with force, the blood colour is bright red, this is because this blood is more or less straight from the heart.
Venous- Blood comes out with a steady flow, the blood colour is a dark red as it has came from your veins.