During the War of _____ and the Creek Wars, many Indians and ________ escaped to Florida, which was owned by _________. They were called the Seminole tribes. After the war, the Treaty of ________ guaranteed that the Indians would get their land back. Many went back home, but some stayed in a British fort. It was called the ________ Fort.
_______________ sent Edmund Gaines to take the fort in July of ______. He expected the Seminoles in the Negro Fort to attack and give them the excuse to destroy the fort. The ___________ attacked. A hot cannon shot into the fort and landed in the fort’s ___________ magazine causing an explosion that killed about _____ men, women, and children of the 320 who occupied the fort. The fort was destroyed.
In late ______, Gaines took control of Fowltown, another Indian reservation inhabited by the Mikasuki tribe, who did not consider themselves of the _______ tribe. A week later, the Seminoles attacked a boat headed for ___________, taking a woman captive and killing most of the passengers on board- possibly some children and women.
___________________, hero of the Creek War, was sent to take over. He rebuilt the Negro Fort naming it _______________ in March of 1818. Jackson seized the Spanish Fort of ____________. There he found Alexander Arbuthnot, a Scottish trader who was supplying local tribes with ______, most likely for hunting.
On April 12, Jackson attacked a village in which he found the white woman who had been captured months earlier. After attacking more villages and finding many empty, Jackson returned to Fort Gadsden. Robert ___________, a British agent, had been captured and after a trial, both Ambrister and Arbuthnot were charged with treason and starting the war. They were ______________.
Jackson attacked _______________ on May 23rd, believing that the Seminole were gathering there and being supplied by the Spanish people. The ________ quickly surrendered and Jackson left, ending the First ______________ War.
Some consequences of the First Seminole War were:
1. Jackson was made a hero. He would later be ____________.
2. Spain paused negotiations with the United States. Although eventually, Spain would resume negotiations and sell ____________ to the U.S.
3. Britain and the United States almost went to ______ again- as Andrew Jackson had killed two ________ men who had actually never entered the ____________________.
After the First Seminole War
In ________, Spain ceded Florida to the U.S.
Reports were sent in 1822 that the Seminoles were _________ and homeless, as they didn’t know where they were allowed to plant their crops and construct their houses.
In 1823, the government and Native Americans signed the Treaty of __________ Creek. The treaty:
1. _________ land to the Native Americans.
2. Offered ____________ as long as they followed the laws
3. Granted the Indians farm equipment and livestock
4. Provided food for a year until the crops came in
5. Paid the tribes $________ per year
6. Provided an interpreter, ___________, and blacksmith for 20 years
The Seminoles needed only to allow _________ to be built across their reservation and had to promise to return any runaway ________ they happened to catch.
The Seminole were not happy with the treaty, but under the leadership of General DuVal, they relocated to the reservation. After the first year, many died of starvation due to lack of food and provisions as there had been a ___________. DuVal asked the government for help, but no answer came.
The Seminoles survived and lived in peace for 5 years, but in ______, a nearby fort closed and the Seminoles left as they were short of food again. Andrew Jackson was elected _________ of the United States and promptly signed the ___________________________________ in 1830.
Indian Removal Act
The Indian Removal Act was a law passed in ______- amidst much controversy. It involved the five largest remaining Native American groups- the _____________