Essay on Flashcards: Figure of Speech and Literal Meaning

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Abstract/Concrete

Details that the author chooses can be given as ideas (abstract) or examples (concrete.)

Ad Hominem Argument

From Latin to or against man
Argument that appeals to emotion rather that reason, feeling rather than intellect (Used in persuasion…think 1800 s American
Lit)

Allegory

The device of using a character or story elements to symbolically represent an abstraction in addition to a literal meaning.

Alliteration (Consonance
Assonance)

The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words.

Allusion

A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, work, or art. Ambiguity (Ambiguous)

The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage.

Cliches

A word or phrase that has become lifeless because of overuse̶avoid them! Example: quiet as a mouse
War is hell.

Colloquialism (Colloquial Speech)

Words or phrases that have a conversational feel and are not generally used in formal written
English.

Connotation (Connotes
Connotative)

The nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. Connotations may involve ideas, emotions or attitudes.

Denotation (Denotes Denotative)

The strict, literal dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude or color.

Diction

Refers to the author s word choices, especially with regard to connotative meaning, correctness, clearness or effectiveness.

Emphasis

Emphasis allows the writer to place importance on a particular idea.

Position

By positioning an idea in a certain place structurally, the writer creates emphasis Proportion

By proportioning a greater amount of words, the writer creates emphasis Isolation

By isolating a key word or phrase, the writer creates emphasis

Repetition

By repeating the wording, the writer creates emphasis

Euphemism

Greek for good speech, euphemisms are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts. Figurative Language

Writing or speech that is not intended to carry a literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid

Figure of speech

Figures of speech may compare dissimilar things. Figures of speech include hyperbole, irony, metaphor, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, and understatement

Hyperbole

A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
Hyperboles often have a comic effect, but a serious effect is also possible Idiom

Allegorical saying that native speakers of the language understand… Skating on thin ice… Imagery

Sensory details used to describe, arouse emotion or represent abstractions. On a physical level, imagery uses terms relating to the five senses.

Irony

The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what is true and what appears to be true

Verbal irony

̶words literally state the opposite of the speaker s true meaning

Dramatic irony

̶facts or events are unknown to a character, but known to the reader

Situational irony

events turn out opposite of what is expected Jargon

Specialized terminology used by a particular group of people. Obscure and often pretentious language.

Literal

Literal̶word for word verbatim ideas Figurative

Figurative̶associated, implied meaning of ideas OPPOSITES!

Metaphor

A figure of speech using an implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity Narrative

The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

Onomatopoeia

A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of the words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmur.

Oxymoron

From the Greek pointedly foolish, an oxymoron is a figure of speech wherein the author groups contradictory terms to suggest a paradox. Paradox

A statement that…