SCI/163 Elements of Health and Wellness
December 8, 2014
From April 10 to July 31, 2008, the rare Saint Paul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 1329 cases of salmonellosis food poisoning in 43 states throughout the United States and in the District of Columbia(2014, November 30). It was the largest reported salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985(2014, November 30). New Mexico and Texas were proportionally the hardest hit, with 56.9 and 21.3 reported cases per million, respectively (2014, November 30).Salmonella is a type of food poisoning caused by the Salmonella enterica bacterium (Salmonella Poisoning). It is transmitted through contaminated food(Salmonella Poisoning).The food may be contaminated during food processing or food handling(Salmonella Poisoning).Food may become contaminated by the unwashed hands of an infected food handler(Salmonella Poisoning). A frequent cause is a food handler who does not wash his or her hands with soap after using the bathroom. Beef, poultry, milk, and eggs are most often infected with salmonella (Salmonella Poisoning). However vegetables may also be contaminated. Contaminated foods usually look and smell normal (Salmonella Poisoning).
When people ingest Salmonella, it invades the surface of the intestine (Salmonella outwits). Our immune system responds by producing oxygen radicals to kill the bacteria (Salmonella outwits). Although some Salmonella bacteria are killed by this response, many more benefit. The oxygen radicals create a sulfur compound called tetrathionate, which Salmonella are able to use instead of oxygen for respiration (Salmonella outwits). By stimulating an inflammatory response in the intestine, Salmonella also enhances its transmission to other hosts (Salmonella outwits).
The inflammatory response causes the severe diarrhea and vomiting that is the body’s attempt to rid itself of the pathogenic bacteria, at the same time enabling Salmonella’s spread (Salmonella outwits).
Many different kinds of illnesses can cause diarrhea, fever, or abdominal cramps (2013, May 14). Determining that Salmonella is the cause of the illness depends on laboratory tests that identify Salmonella in the stool of an infected person (2013, May 14). Once Salmonella has been identified, further testing can determine its specific type (2013, May 14). Infections usually resolve in five to seven days and most do not require treatment other than oral fluids (2013, May 14). Persons with severe diarrhea may require re-hydration with intravenous fluids (2013, May 14).
To help prevent Salmonella always wash your hands before you start preparing food (HOW).Cook poultry until it reaches an internal temperature of 165 ºF (HOW). Cook beef and pork until they reach 160ºF (HOW). High quality steaks can be safely cooked to 145ºF (HOW). Cook eggs until they reach 160ºF or until the yoke is solid (HOW). Pasteurized eggs are available in some grocery stores. Do not eat or drink foods containing raw eggs. Examples include homemade eggnog, hollandaise sauce, and undercooked French toast. Never drink raw milk (HOW). Avoid using the microwave for cooking raw foods of animal origin (HOW). Microwave-cooked foods do not reach a uniform internal temperature, resulting in undercooked
areas and survival of Salmonella (HOW). If you are served undercooked meat,…