One of the first things humans ever uncovered as a social and economic advancement was the creating of a foraging society in the Paleolithic Age. Soon after, however, came the agricultural societies or urbanized societies. Both society types seem ideal for their time of usage, but saying one is more ideal than the other would have to be justified. The societies have their own advantages and disadvantages making them equally skeptical. A foraging society is most commonly known as a hunting and gathering society. This society was ideally used by nomads of the Paleolithic Age. People of this society would stay temporarily in an area hunting animals as resource of food, housing, and clothing. Along with gathering fruits and or berries for food, stones and sticks were used for things like tools and weaponry. However, in early stages over hunting and picking would leave regions inhabitable for months. The roles of men and women in this society were that men were mostly hunters with few working in weaponry while women served as gathers and somewhat homemakers. Though foraging societies worked on a social scale the economic scale was poor. With no permanent settlement they had no trade or specialized labor. And with little to no socializing with other humans, apart from pack it led them to lack of skills and technique. Later hunting and gathering societies transitioned into agricultural societies. This society consists of the use of planting crops and raising livestock as well
concentrate their energies on food production; however, they would have had to settle permanently near their fields.
In many drier parts of the world, where wild food remained abundant, agriculture did not arise. Ex: Australia relied exclusively on foraging until recent centuries.
Farmer vs. Forager (Crash course)
The hot, arid climate of southern Mesopotamia called for irrigation, the artificial provision of water…
Megaliths: “Big Stones”
7. Civilization: Human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor
8. Babylonian Creation Myth: Sumer writing on tablet
9. City-State: A self-governing urban center and the agricultural territories it controlled
10. Lugal: Sumerian cuneiform sign for leader
11. Cuneiform: Stylized combinations of strokes and wedges
12. Dynasty: a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family
13. Hammurabi’s Law Code:…
- Engels’s Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884) outlines roles and
position of women and men, varying according to the mode of production
o Communal societies – women’s position high
Patriline obscured so descent is matrilineal
Women esteemed for roles – “mother-right” societies
Equal part in socialized production
o Private property emerges – as wealth increases, property emerges and men’s
Men establish “father-right,” patrilineality…
their community was based. The road to agricultural way of life in the MIddle East is characterized by Four distinct stages. It was during the Kebaran period, and Geometric Kebaran in which hunter-gatherers began to utilize the plant and animal resources of the region. Architecture became a prominent feature of the Natufian period, as communities began to transition to village life from…
Libre was a society based primarily on agriculture but men and women also spent time searching and foraging for food. Their main source of protein was fish from the Pacific Ocean and streams on the island. They picked fruit such as mangos and coconuts from trees that were both harvested by the tribe and from trees that were wild. Luckily there were several permanent streams, one permanent river and adequate drainage to support the society’s agricultural needs. As an agricultural society every single…
species. They did this by extracting more nutrients from these species by cooking and grinding them, by propagating the most useful species and by burning woodlands to enhance hunting and foraging success.
Even before the last ice age had ended, thousands of years before agriculture, hunter-gatherer societies were well established across the earth and depended increasingly on sophisticated technological strategies to sustain growing populations in landscapes long ago transformed by their ancestors…
UNIT 1 /2 – 8000 bce – 600 bce, 600 bce – 600 ce
Compare and contrast life in foraging societies with life in agricultural societies after the Agricultural Revolution
Identify two key changes in early African history that resulted in a new period in the history of the region
The Middle East
Analyze the political changes in the Middle East from the Agricultural Revolution to 600 c.e.
Compare and contrast the basic features of TWO of the following religious systems prior to 600 c.e.
They live a nomadic life by traveling from campsite to campsite while gathering and hunting for food. According to Turnbull (1985) Mbuti, “generally only move in line ahead because of the narrowness of forest trails” (pg. 6). Thus living in a foraging society and being horticulturist, the Mbuti have very little belongings. They look at the forest as their nurturer who provides them with food and shelter as does a mother and father. Throughout the paper kinship, social organization, beliefs and values…
Chapters 1 and 2
1. Megalith- a large stone that is usually used to construct a building or monument; can be alone or with other stones
2. Holocene- geological epoch that dates back from around 9000 b.c.e. to the present
3. Agricultural Revolution- A period in time where the main food source came from personal production of resources; hunting and gathering became obsolete in a way, but was still around and did not disappear
4. Forager- a hunter/gatherer of food and/or other provisions…
Thinking Critically/Review Questions
Dr. Maggie Boylan
January 15, 2013
Chapter 1: Plants in Our Lives
1. What are the characteristics of angiosperms?
Angiosperms are characterized by flowers and fruits. Angiosperms also contain four whorls of parts: the stamen, sepals, petals and one or more carpels. They are also unique because their sexual reproductive structures are contained in a flower.