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KEY
Space Exploration – Unit Exam Review Questions

Section 1.0 – The composition and distribution in space 1. What 2 measurements do you need to find out to determine the location of an object in the sky?
Azimuth (compass direction) and altitude (distance from horizon up). 2. a) Which star is located west at an angle of 40º above the horizon? Star A b) Which star is located at an altitude of 53º and an azimuth of 0º? Star C

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Section 2.0 – Rockets, living in space, satellites 1. What are 3 main types of spacecraft?
Shuttles, space probes, and space stations.

2. a) Draw a rocket, and label its main parts. What percent mass is allowed for each part?
Mechanical elements (3%)
Payload (6%)
Fuel (91%)

b) What propels a rocket forward?
Rockets have gas under pressure in the combustion chamber. An opening allows the gas to be released, producing a thrust and causing propulsion.

c) How is an object launched in space?
Gas is filled in the combustion chamber which is put under pressure. When released a thrust is produced from the escape of the gas, and pushes the object into space at a fast enough speed to overcome Earth's gravity.

d) What are the 2 technologies that will be used to propel spacecraft between the planets? Why will they be used?
Ion drives because it uses 1/10 the fuel and the thrust lasts longer.
Solar sails because they can travel up to 5 times faster.

3. What are 5 challenges of living in space, and what technologies are used to overcome these challenges? i) finding water - recycled ii) oxygen to breathe - electrolysis iii) muscle degeneration - exercising iv) radiation - space suit v) extreme temperature - space suit regulations

4. a) What is the difference between a natural and artificial satellite?
Natural satellites - any small body that orbits a larger body, ie: a moon orbiting a planet.
Artificial satellites - objects that are built and sent into Earth's orbit by humans.

b) What are the 4 types of artificial satellites and what are they used for? i) communication satellites - wireless technologies to communicate to all parts of the world. ii) observation and research satellites - geosynchronous or non-geosynchronous that observe specific aspects of the Earth. iii) remote sensing - collect images from satellites moving low in the Earth's orbit. iv) personal tracking satellites - determine a persons location within a a few meters. At all times there are at least 3 over your location.

c) What is a geosynchronous orbit
An orbit that goes at the same speed and direction as the Earth.

d) Determine the position of a person holding a GPS receiver given the following data.

|Satellite |Distance to GPS Receiver |
|1 |500 km |
|2 |800 km |
|3 |550 km |

Edmonton.

5. Name 4 items that we use on Earth that were originally designed for use in space.
Microelectronics, structural analysis, analysis of smokestack emissions, virtual reality software, manufactured baby and freeze-dried foods, design/manufacture/improvement of helmets, golf balls, running shoes, ski goggles, digital imaging for breast cancer, motion sickness medications, control chronic pain, voice-controlled wheelchairs, microlasers, tire traction, emergency response robots.

Section 3.0 – Telescopes, Triangulation, Spectroscopy 1. a) What is an optical telescope and why do we use them to study space?
An optical telescope gathers and focuses light from stars so we can see them. They include either reflecting or refracting telescopes.

b) What is the difference between a reflecting and refracting telescope?
Reflecting telescopes use…