Forensic Review Essay

Submitted By asilv15
Words: 2200
Pages: 9

Chapter 1: Introduction to Forensics
Observations-watching something or someone carefully in order to gain information
Inferences-A conclusion based on evidence and reasoning but isn’t a fact. Assuming it’s true and then leads you to real facts
First police crime lab in the world was established in France in 1910 by Edmond Locard
Edmond Locard said “every contact leaves a trace” Locard Exchange Principle is whenever two objects come into contact w/ each other, traces of each other are exchanged
Miranda Rights-you have the right to remind silent. anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. you have the right to speak to an attorney and during your questioning. If you can not afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at the government’s expense
The FBI crime lab was created in the 1930’s
DNA evidence was first used in court in the 1980’s
DEA and ATF (governmental agencies) both maintain their own crime labs
Violations of civil law are punished by fines. Civil law is a type of noncriminal law
The case Frye v United States decides what evidence is allowed in court depends on what is “generally accepted” by the relevant scientific community
Forensics scientists may examine evidence concerning both civil and criminal cases
Plea bargain is when the defendant pleads guilty and the prosecutor reduces the charge
In a grand jury, the jury decides by majority rule, if there is enough evidence for a trail, in a preliminary hearing the judge decides
Misdemeanors are punishable by community service,up to one year in jail and up to $2,500
A forensic pathologist is also known as medical examiner
The technique that a burglar uses for home entry is known as their modus operandi
Bertillon measured various body lengths as a means of individual identification
Forensic Anthropologist can determine age through bone examination
Forensic Odontologist-assesses bite marks
Forensic Entomologist-assists in insect identification and region of death
Forensic Toxicologist tests for drugs and poisons
Forensic Serologist test bodily fluids
Bail-money to guarantee a court appearance
Ballistics-the study of projectiles, especially with regard to firearms
Case-Type of law based on opinions and precedents
Daubert-revision of the Frye standard
Felony-A serious crime punishable by sentence >(greater than) 5 years
Frye-”general acceptance” standard
Hearsay-Second hand testimony not admissible in criminal court
Junk-Another name for Pseudoscience
Pathology-The study of cause of death
Probative-Type of law that excludes hearsay
Infraction-Violation of a rule of law
Van Leeuwenhoek-early microscope
Marsh Test- detects arsenic poisoning
Paul Revere-Early odontology-ID gen.Warren
Edward Henry-Finger print classification system
Karl Landsteiner- Blood types
Watson and Crick-DNA double helix
Alec Jeffries-
AFIS-Automated fingerprint identification system.

Chapter 2: Evidence
Evidence is anything that tends to establish or disprove a fact
Testimonial-A statement made under oath, also known as direct evidence or prima facie evidence
Physical-Any object or material that is relevant in a crime, also know as indirect evidence ex.Fiber,soil,glass,bones,DNA,toolmarks,drugs,documents. More reliable than testimonial. Can prove that a crime has been committed.
The reliability of eye witness accounts is dependent on the type of crime,the interviewing technique used by the investigator,the time between the crime and the interview ect.
Transient Evidence-temporary, easily changed or lost, usually observed by the 1st officer at the scene. ex. odor,temperature,imprints & indentations, markings.
Pattern Evidence-produced by direct contact b/w a person and an object or between two objects. Most are in the form of imprints, indentations, striations, markings, fractures or deposits. ex. Blood spatter, glass fracture, tool marks, gun power residue ect.
Conditional Evidence-Important in crime scene