Every atom consists of a nucleus with tiny electrons whizzing around it. Thompson using the Cathode Ray Tube found these tiny electrons. He shot a stream of electrons through two magnets and saw that they were repelled from the negative side and attracted to positive.
By placing atoms of a metal into a flame, electrons can be induced to absorb energy and jump to an excited energy state, a quantum jump. They then return to their ground state by emitting a photon of light. The amount of energy in the photon determines its color; red is the lowest energy of visible light, increasing through the rainbow until finally violet the highest energy of visible light. Photons outside the visible spectrum may also be emitted, but we cannot see them.
The arrangement of electrons in an atom determines the size of the quantum jump and thus the energy and colors of the collection of photons emitted, known as the emission spectrum. In this way, the emission spectrum serves as a “fingerprint” of the element to which the atoms belong. We can view the emission spectrum of colors all at once with the naked eye. It will appear to be one color, which we will carefully describe. It is also possible to separate the colors of the emission spectrum by using a spectroscope, which bends light of different energy levels differently.
In this experiment the independent variable is the type of metal used to put in the flame to have it change color. The dependent variable is the object that changes due to the change of the independent variable, which would be the flame and the color; it changes to, Red being largest wavelength decreasing to violet with the smallest wavelength. The hypothesis for this experiment would be if the metal were put in a flame then the flame would change colors because of the electrons dropping to their stable state. One constant that could have affected results would be the bunsen burner, it was different at each station but should have stayed the same another would be the sample stick but could have possibly be contaminated accidentally.
In this experiment its important to get enough of the metal on the sample stick so that the flame will react to it. It also needs to be placed in the proper area of the flame, which is the smaller flame that is darker blue inside the big flame. This is important because it’s where the flame is the hottest and will make the whole flame react to the metal. Also, for safety be carful of hands near the flame.
Description of solution
Light yellow color
Frequency- speed of light= wavelength x frequency
3.00x108=430x10-9 x frequency
3.00x108/ 430x10-9= frequency
6.98x1014hz= frequency Energy= h x Frequency
6.626x10-34 x 6.98x1014=4.37x10-19
Wavelength= 430nm x1x10-9