Psychology starts as a separate discipline only recently more than 100 years. Many authors set for its start date for the 1879, year in that Wilhelm Wundt found the first laboratory of psychology in the University of Leipzig. Be considered to Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) the founder of psychology as autonomous and separate from philosophy, science and is described as "father of psychology." (Kowalski & Westen 2005). Time notes the independence of the psychology of other sciences which was closely linked: metaphysics, philosophy, Physiology, such as.
When psychology established as an independent science of philosophy and biology, the discussion about how to describe and explain the human mind and began the behavior.
One of the first schools of the thought it was the structuralism, this was defended by who found the philosopher Wilhelm Wundt. After a time began to emerge new theories which began to grow and fight for prevail in psychology
Higher schools of thought found; the structuralism, functionalism, humanistic, psychology cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis, Behaviorism and Gestalt psychology these have influenced our knowledge and understanding of psychology. This will go to discuss below doing a brief overview.
According Warner (2009), in psychology the structuralism school was the first take the mental processes and divided them in its basic to study it components. Edward Titchener was one of the important structuralism of this century to achieve a comprehensive analysis of the mind. Showed as combined elements up form phenomena more complete the “adult mind” and offer an explanation of processes mental, the main elements according to Titchener, are the sensation, the images and the affections to understand the functioning of the brain and the nervous system. (Goodman, 2009)
Functionalism was formed in response to the theories of structuralism school and it was influenced by the work of William James. Between their thinkers functionalists are John Dewey and Harvey Carr. Dewey had its own argument which was against this analytical strategy was to reduce the reflex to its elements and fight to consider the mirror in his wider context as a system coordinated than used to adapt to the body to its environment.
For the Decade of 1950, the Behaviorism was school domain based on the work of the philosophers: Watson, Pavlov and Skinner. The Behaviorism argues that the environment and internal forces are the causes the behavior of humans and is based on observable behaviors. This includes theories of classical and operant conditioning which they were the focus of much research. This discipline says that it can explain conduct, it predicts and is controllable. Then a new approach this discipline, called the neo-behaviorism, accepted their core budgets, However, included the cognitions behavior within the. From then the predominance of the behaviorism declined due to a new approach, the cognitive. Sigmund Freud alongside Josef Breuer has the psychodynamic approach. This school has the influence in the behavior of mind and his unconscious. Freud interested by the Neurology and by certain mental disorders such as the hysteria, developed their famous theory of psychoanalysis, which can be understood as a method therapeutic to treat mental diseases using techniques of the free association or the interpretation dream, as a theory of the personality, believes that the human mind was composed of three elements or division: id, ego and superego (Vidales, 2008.)
The psychology humanist was developed in response to the theory of psychoanalysis and behaviorism. This humanist theory concentrating in development of the personal growth, free will and self – actualization. Usually calling "third force" of psychology, because I reject the determinism of the psychoanalysis and Behaviorism, and suggested that humans are free of develop and control their own lives, instead of being linked to its past. Humanistic