The author focuses on the fact that “Humans are not the only creatures that use tools;... Only humans, however, could not survive without tools, and only humans have in turn been shaped by the tools they use” (p.1). He supports this argument with an analysis comparing the modern human brain with the prehistoric human brain and argues that although they are similar, we have been shaped by our tools and technology. “...if one of them reappeared on earth and sat on a bus seat next to us, we would think it was just another passenger.” (p.3), yet we are very different as we’ve been shaped by our technology throughout thousands of years.
Another powerful argument is made about the fact that technology has historically depended on geography, climate and the types of animals available for hunting and domestication. However, it has often been used by elites and the educated to distinguish themselves from the poor and uneducated and for exploiting others. From the pyramids in Egypt built for pharaohs of the time, to the invention of writing by Sumerians which “became a way for distinguishing the literate elite from the rest of the population” (p.34), technology has been abused by the elites. This is directly a result of “civilization” where not everyone needs to help provide food and therefore people can perform work other than hunting, farming or herding, and can instead focus on other tasks. This means that that farmers also had to protect their fertile land close to the river, therefore they needed weapons and barriers to protect their