(Chapter 19 - textbook pages 478- 503)
1. Who made up each of the following Estates in France under the Old Regime? a) First Estate: Clergy and members of the church; owned land; few people; paid NO taxes b) Second Estate: Nobility; owned land; few people; paid NO taxes c) Third Estate: 98% of the population (Bourgeoisie, professionals, merchants, artisans, peasants); had no rights; owned little land; paid ALL the taxes
2. What social, political and economic factors led to the French Revolution?
Social: Third Estate resented the social structure; lack of food for the people
Political: Absolute Monarchy; majority of the people had NO say in the gov’t and could not vote
Economical: The Third Estate was the only estate that paid taxes; Deficit spending by King Louis XVI; poor harvest led to rise in bread prices
3. define: bourgeoisie: working middle class; members of the Third Estate
4. define: deficit spending: Spending more $ than you have; placing yourself or the nation in debt
5. How did the Enlightenment influence the Revolution? The bourgeoisie was well versed in the writings of Voltaire, Locke and other Enlightenment thinkers. They believed that if the colonists could revolt against England then they could overthrow King Louie and get a constitution for the people of France.
6. Why did King Louis XVI call upon the Estate General? He called the Estates General to discuss the issue of taxation and how to get France out of debt.
7. What were cahiers? Notebooks each Estate prepared for the meeting of the Estates General where they listed their grievances (complaints) against the king.
8. What were the results of the meeting of the Estates General? The First and Second Estates out voted the Third Estate because each estate received only 1 vote. So, nothing changed with regards to taxation. The Third Estate is locked out of the meeting and the only place they have to meet on is the tennis court. They change their name to the National Assembly, since they are the people of the state.
9. What was the main goal of The Tennis Court Oath? For the National Assembly not to disband until a constitution is written for the people of France.
REVOLUTION BEGINS (PHASE 1)
10. Describe the event that marked the beginning of the French Revolution? Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789; members of the National Assembly went to the prison because rumors were spreading that the king was hiding grain and ammunition there; shots were fired and this is the start of the French Revolution.
11. What took place during the “Great Fear” (give three facts): Rumors spread that government troops were taking crops; peasants attacked nobles and stole grain from storehouses
12. What is the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens? Document written by the National Assembly; contained many Enlightenment ideas included equality for all and natural rights. Slogan of the French Revolution was created: Liberty (freedom), Equality, Fraternity (brotherhood) was chanted.
13. Describe the “Women’s March on Versailles”? (Cause/Effect): Angry women marched to Versailles because they were starving and thought the queen would be sympathetic to them and hear them; Effect: the angry mob drags the king and queen back to Paris with them so they can see first-hand what the majority of the people are experiencing. (Women were tired of Marie Antoinette’s lavish spending on clothes and hats Madame Deficit)
14. What other reforms were made once the National Assembly took over? Church was reorganized (sold off Church lands; church fell under the government; pope had no authority); A written constitution (limited monarchy was created); free trade was allowed
15. define: suffrage: Right to vote; was extended to all males, not just those who owned land.
16. In September 1792, the National Convention made several radical changes. Name three changes: voted to abolish the monarchy and declared