1. Which of the following would affect the flow of energy through an ecosystem most ?
a. Removal of top carnivore.
b. Addition of detritivore.
c. Removal of primary producer.
d. Addition of primary consumer.
2. Natural selection can cause evolution. Environmental factors such as _______ can be agents of natural selection. Select all that apply.
a. Habitat loss
b. Climate change
d. Introduction of non-native species
3. DNA codes for _______.
4. Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. The molecule responsible for heredity is
c. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
5. One organisms consumes another in order to obtain energy. This relationship illustrates:
b. Predator / Prey
6. One organism lives inside another, usually causing harm to the host. This relationship illustrates:
7. Birds often follow herds of grazing cows waiting for the cows to stir up bugs and worms. This relationship illustrates: a. Parasitism
8. Ants like to eat sweet nectar provided by aphids. In turn, the ants provide protection for the aphids. This relationship illustrates:
9. DNA polymerases work to proofread DNA after it has been built. However, outside sources can cause mutations as well. Examples of outside sources of mutation do
c. Toxic chemicals
d. Extreme cold
e. Extreme heat
10. If DNA has been mutated, what else will not function properly?
11. Why do individual phenotypes vary within a population? Select all that apply.
a. Individuals want to be different.
b. Different phenotypes provide different advantages for survival and reproduction.
c. Random mutations result in genetic variation.
d. There is no variation of phenotypes.
12. Why do giraffes have long necks or jack rabbits have long ears?
a. They needed them so they grew them.
b. These adaptations make them stick out to predators.
c. So they have different phenotypes.
d. These are random mutations that are favored by natural selection.
13. Water is important to cells. Why?
a. It is a buffer for body temperature (a point of homeostasis).
b. It provides a soluble environment for chemical reactions.
c. It serves as a reactant in chemical reactions.
d. It provides hydration that maintains cell turgidity.
e. It maintains protein shape.
f. All of the above (Be able to explain each of the above).
14. If a somatic cell containing 20 chromosomes undergoes meiosis to create gametes, each gamete will contain how many chromosomes?
a. Gametes will be diploid: 10 chromosomes each.
b. Gametes will be haploid: 20 chromosomes each.
c. Gametes will be haploid: 10 chromosomes each
d. Gametes will be diploid: 20 chromosomes each.
15. The same somatic cell from question 14 undergoes mitosis twice. How many chromosomes will the daughter cells have?
a. Daughter cells will be diploid: 10 chromosomes each.
b. Daughter cells will be haploid: 20 chromosomes each.
c. Daughter cells will be haploid: 10 chromosomes each
d. Daughter cells will be diploid: 20 chromosomes each.
16. Indicate how the rate of a chemical reaction, including photosynthesis or cellular respiration, would be changed with the following: (Answer “faster” or “slower” for each letter)
a. Higher volume of reactants
b. Decreased temperature
c. Less available enzymes or light
17. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?