During the prehistoric period, the first form of civilization was found in Mesopotamia. Said mainly because the people went from hunting and gathering to planting and herding, thus becoming the first farmers, as we know. Later on, groupings of families in the same location were found to be the First Cities known to humans.
Historians call Mesopotamia the Cradle of Civilization because it was there that civilizations were first created, over 5000 years ago. Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and the Euphrates River which currently stands for the name of Iraq. The early settlers of Mesopotamia decided that this land was a very good place to live because they were close to two rivers. Rivers give you fresh water to drink, so being near two rivers meant survival. Also rivers were important for agriculture. Mesopotamia is called ''The Fertile Crescent'' because it is a very fertile land and it is shaped like a crescent.
The first civilization around 3500 BC were the Sumerians. Different cities were built in Sumer such as, Ur, Uruk, Lagash and Kish. They were called city-states. They all shared the same culture, but they had their own rulers, kings, gods and laws. Each city-state had a large city wall around it to protect it from enemies.
The settlement of humans in the Near East began with the movement of Homo erectus off the African continent roughly 2 million years ago during the Paleolithic Period. The first phases of the Paleolithic period extend from 2.5 million years BC through 14,000 BC. During most of that time, humans lived in open air campsites and in small natural caves. In the Paleolithic Period roles were determined based on gender. Man participated in hunting, fishing and fought to protect his clan. The woman gathered wild fruits and grains, and made clothing and woven baskets. Language, art and religion are believed to have started developing in this period. During the Epipaleolithic period humans lived in circular or semi-circular structures called pit houses. By 9000 BC, modern humans were living in settled communities throughout the Near East.
The settlement of Jarmo, Iraq dates from the pre-pottery Neolithic period, between 9000 and 7000 BC. The Neolithic period was a period in the development of human technology. During most of the Neolithic period, people lived in small tribes composed of multiple bands or lineages.
The First Farmers
Domestication of animals as well as the domestication of plants changed people's live. The most significant change was the shift from nomadic-lifestyle to settled villages. The change from hunting and gathering to planting and herding was a globalized event. Around the first farmers there were many different kinds of wild grass that grew around them, but they did not work for them. Then they saw a different crop that grew better so they decided to use the wheat for bread and other foods. It produced the first farmers more and better grain. The